SCORE parameter exercises

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Here are some more short musical samples to do as an exercise to become familiar with SCORE's parameters after doing this set of simpler exercises. These exercises focus on editing object parameters after the basic musical structure has been input into the SCORE editor in the user input mode. In other words, not all of the music notation can be entered in input mode, and you will have to edit numeric parameters and/or add objects to get the final notation.

Input and do edit adjustments for three of the following 10 examples. You should refer to the SCORE Reference Manual and the SCORE parameter table when editing numeric parameters. Also, you can get brief explanations of each parameter for an item when editing an object by pressing the F1 function key in the SCORE program. Here are brief visual summaries of the parameters are available online for the more complicated item types: notes (P1=1) and slurs (P1=5). A review of the User Input Manual may also be helpful.

While doing each exercise, make a list of parameters you needed to alter in order to typeset each exercise that you do. Turn this list in with your completed exercises. For example to horizontally offset notes in exercise #1 below, you should alter P10 of the notes to offset them from the default time position. Another example would be which parameter for line codes needs to be changed to get a dashed line as seen in example #1 and what value indicates a dashed line rather than a solid line?

Here is a PDF file with the exercises already typeset: hardscore.pdf.

Order of the examples from easiest to hardest: 3 6 1 7 9 5 4 8 2 10.

Example 1

Buxtehude exercise which is a study on how place multiple voices onto a single staff with the notes spatially offset from each other so that separate stems are visible. When doing this exercise, user input should be done in at least two passes on the top staff. For the third voice, another pass could be done, or you can manually add the notes for the third voice. When adding an incomplete secondary layer of music, you can enter rests where there is no music for the voice, and then erase those place-holder rests later. Alternatively you can insert invisible rests (called "RI" in the pitch-input stage). For the cross-staff notes in the fourth measures, you can enter that in several ways, the most convenient is to use "S-" in the pitch stage to temporarily move one of the top-staff voices to the bottom staff, and then "S0" to move the voice back up to the top staff to continue data entry for the next measure. You can also insert the notes in the extra voices in measure 4 in the bottom staff as multiple layers on the bottom staff, but more convenient in this case (other than the S- method) would be to just copy notes and manually construct these temporary voices.



  • In input mode, use "S-" to enter a voice on the lower staff temporarily and then "S0" to return to placing notes on the top staff. (Or use "S+" to enter on the staff above the home staff, and "S0" to return to entering notes on the bottom staff).
  • Note offsets for the multiple voices in this example are altered with P10 of code 1 items (notes). Note that the P3 value of all notes on a staff which are to be played at the same time must be equal. Offsetting a note visually by adjusting the P3 instead of P10 will cause LJ to treat them as a melodic sequence rather than a vertical sonority. In other words, DO NOT use P3 to offset notes slightly between the different voices: instead use P10 for notes to give the offset for notes that should be played at the same time but have a visual offset from the same P3 value.
  • The dashed line is input in command mode as a dashed line (P1=4 for lines). Try the command "DASH 2". Then use F4 and F5 to move the left/right ends of the dashed line.

Example 2

Cross-staff beaming. This exercise looks deceptively easy since there are few notes, but it takes careful consideration to get it right and also to do it efficiently. See the tips below the example.


Hints: This is a tricky example to accomplish even though it looks easy.

  • Input all of the musical notes on the bottom staff.
  • Note that the notes are triplet eight notes (TE or 12 in pitch input).
  • Use the S+ and S0 (S-zero) in input mode to move the notes temporarily to the upper staff and then back again to the original staff.
  • Use the STUD command to align the stems (see SCORE 3 manual, page 245).
  • Put invisible rests (RI in pitch input stage) in the top staff (one for each measure). The two invisible rests have a duration of 7 quarter notes ("WHQ" in pitch entry stage). Also add the clef change at the end of the top staff when entering the invisible rests.
  • The repeat brackets above the measures were entered with a blank middle, then some text was manually added to generate the 2X marking (see chapter 16 for adding the "x", and the slur parameter page for adding an open bracket.
  • The word sempre has to be added as a text item (using font _02 for italic); likewise for "Ped. sempre".

Example 3

Chopin Mazurka.



  • In input mode, repeated chords can be done by giving an empty item (not with "x" multiplier):
  • The small notes are cue-sized notes which can be entered in user input mode with the commands Q+ and Q-. You might also want to force the stems down on the cue notes by adding a separate entry in the pitch stage: "SD" (meaning stems down).
  • The duration of the small notes are quintuplet sixteenth notes, which occur 20 times in a whole note (they are not grace notes).
  • Triplet sixteenths can be entered in the rhythm stage as "ts" or "24" (24 being the number of triplet sixteenth notes that fit into one whole note).
  • The notes in the first measure of the bottom staff can be entered as "EN3:G:DUx3". In other words three of the same chord. The natural and sharp will not be duplicated on the second and third chords (using "z" instead of "x" will duplicate the accidentals in the chord notes).
  • The duration of graces notes is indicated in the rhythm stage with a "G".
  • The numbers near the beams are tuplet numbers. Search for the parameter used to specify a "number over a beam" either in the SCORE reference manual, the parameter matrix, or by pressing F1 while editing the beam to view the parameter list and help for the beam item. The tuplet numbers on beams can also be added in user input mode. For example the beam-entry text for the sextuplet beam in the third measure is "608 13" which means beam notes 8 through 13, placing a "6" on the beam.

Example 4

Liber usualis. There are several ways to typeset this example in SCORE. A simple method would be to change the notehead shape to the visual display below for each neume. The JT command can be used to space the text correctly after notes and text have been entered.



  • This example is probably easiest to create without using the input mode and instead adding graphical object by hand.
  • Add a blank 4-line staff, then position the text next, then position the neumes last.
  • Neumes can be entered either as code 9 items (symbols) or as code 1 items (notes) with special shapes for the note heads and no stems. Doing the neumes as notes is the best option, replacing the notehead shape with a neume shape. See P6 of notes. Some neumes such as the one over "mi-" and "es," are best done by inserting multiple notes with the same P3, then adjusting the P10 of notes to spread them out horizontally. This will keep the spacings fixed when using LJ.
  • The barline in the middle of the staff has non-default start and stop points. See P10 and P11 for barlines in the user manual or with the F1 help button (when you are editing a beam).
  • The JT command will be useful for this example. See documentation about JT in the reference manual (under the Code 16 chapter). Also try typing "?JT" in command mode to see brief documentation about the JT command.

Example 5

Edvard Grieg



  • In user input mode "S+" is used to position notes one staff above the current staff; "S0" moves notes back to the current staff.
  • Occasional secondary voice notes/rests can be added manually, or added as a second pass of data entry on the staff (either using invisible rests which are not recommended, or rests as rhythm placeholders to delete later).
  • Grace notes have the duration "G" in the rhythm-stage.
  • Use "DIm" in the marks-stage to place the dim. (diminuendo) mark (typically attached to the second staff).
  • In measure 3, the rests can be entered in the pitch-stage as RD (rest down). Or these rests can be inserted in command mode "REST 2 100" for adding a quarter rest to the middle of the second staff. Then move the rest near a note it comes under and then type "CN" while editing the rest to center it exactly under the note.
  • The staccatos on the stem side of notes can be entered as "-S" in the marks-stage of user input. Otherwise they have to be moved manually above the beams using P14 of the note. It is possible to do this visually rather than guessing at the vertical accent offset values. Alternately negate P11 to move the staccato to the stem side of the note. P13 of notes can be used to align the staccato horizontally with the stem (which is a common style not used in this example).
  • Horizontal adjustment of the articulations (staccatos) should be done with P13 of the note. The staccatos should be centered on the stem rather than the notehead when they are on the stem side of the note (contrary to what you see in the example).

Example 6

Liszt Consolation.



  • Octaves (in the top staff) can be entered by adding a "+" to add an octave above a note, or "-" to add an octave below a note. For example the first octave F's in the top staff can be encoded as "F5+" or "F5-".
  • Note that the notes in the left hand (bottom staff) are triplet eighth notes (not plain eighth notes). "TE" or "12" are the rhythm stage symbols for triplet-eighths. This is important—if you don't match the duration of the two staves, then the LJ command will not work.
  • For the first slur (or tie since SCORE does not differentiate between the two) on the top staff, use the slur-stage numbers "0 1", where 0 means it goes off to the left across the system break.
  • For the second slur on the top staff, use the slur-stage numbers "3 99", where 99 means it goes off to the right across the system break.
  • Type "ARP 2 150" to place an arpeggio roughly where it should be place in the music. Use F4 and F5 with the and arrow keys to adjust the height of the arpeggio. The LJ command should be (re)run after the arpeggio mark has been positioned near the notes it applies to.
  • The whole-note in measure 3 could be either added in several ways:
    1. with a second pass on the bottom staff in user-input mode (using a temporary rest with duration WW which you can delete later)
    2. Copy a nearby eighth-note which the notehead shape changed to a whole note (P6=2), and optionally the duration changes to 4 quarter notes (P7=4). Use "CN" to align the P3 value of the new note with the rest above it.

Example 7

One of Pachelbel's other works.



  • Check the usage of P8 for beams to create the tricky beam break in the third measure in the reference manual (or F1 online help for P8).

Example 8

Campion tablature.



  • This example is probably easiest to create without using the input mode and instead adding graphical object by hand.
  • Similar to example 9. Refer to the SCORE 4.0 manual addition for samples of the symbol library.
  • Probably most efficient to insert finger letters as notes, and then change the notehead shapes.
  • The notes above the staff could be entered as code 9 items, or as notes.
  • The fancy repeat barline is best done with a code 8 item (#943 and #945) see the list of graphical objects in the SCORE 3.10 Manual Additions documentation.
  • Invisible barlines can be input in input mode with "RI" in the pitch stage. These might be handy to have at the beginning and ending of the staff if you plan to use LJ.

Example 9

Schoenberg piece with tonerow underneath.



  • The top two lines should be justified independently from the bottom line (LJ bottom staff, then LJ two top staves separately).
  • Music for the top two lines could be entered in two different ways: (1) enter music for each staff, adding an invisible rest (MI) between the notes as needed, or (2) enter all of the notes for both staves on the bottom staff, using "S+" to temporarily add notes to the top staff and "S0" to return to the bottom staff (this method is more difficult since all of the notes need to be added on one staff, making it difficult to make corrections if you make an error).
  • In input mode of the bottom staff, add an invisible barline at the end of the music (RI in pitch entry stage); otherwise, LJ may do strange things if you do not enter music for the full width of the page.
  • See the reference manual for how to print an "ä" character and (Chapter 16 for Text items).
  • See the reference manual chapter 14 for barlines. P9 for dashing, P10 and P11 for vertical offset of the barline.
  • The easiest way to enter the bottom staff notes is as quarter notes without accidentals. Then use the conditional editing command "IF P1=1 then P5=0" to remove the stems, then click on notes and type "FLT" and "SHP" to add flat or sharp (press enter to move to the next note while editing).
  • To add a gap between the two tone rows, set P7 to 2, then do LJ on the staff. (This makes the E5 note spaced like a half note).

Example 10

Richard Strauss.



  • The 32nd note markings are for tremolos which are indicated as beam items (see the beam chapter for tremolos)