MuseData file specification

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1 Format for MuseData files

Version 4.02
(05/03/2003)
(revised 4-26-05)
(revised 1-06-06)
(revised 4-22-08)
(revised 1-11-09)

A CCARH S-file (MuseData file) is organized as a set of variable length records. Each S-file describes the music in one musical part of a musical work. A musical part may consist of one or more lines of music. For example, Oboe I and Oboe II may be combined on one staff and therefore be considered as one musical part (Oboes). Music on the grand staff may be considered as one or two parts. If musical notation or symbols cross between the staves of the grand staff, then the music on the grand staff must be treated as one musical part.

An S-file has three sections: a header, the main section containing the primary musical data, and an auxiliary section containing footnote data. The third section of the S-file is optional.

The first nine records of the S-file header provide information on the encoding process (date and encoder), the musical work (work and movement numbers and titles), and the source of the data. Record 10 identifies the part groups to which this part belongs. For example, there may be files for Oboe I, Oboe II and Oboe I,II combined. Oboe I,II would belong to the group called "fullscore," whereas the Oboe I and Oboe II parts by themselves would belong to the group called "parts" (but not to fullscore). In addition, if the Oboe parts are musically independent, they might belong to a group called "tracks." The names and arrangements of the groups and parts is left to the encoder. For each group to which a part belongs, there is a record (starting with record 12) giving the group name and the sequence number of that part in that group. The arrangement of the parts into various groups allows flexibility in printing full scores, short scores, and individual instrumental parts. It makes possible the representation of vocal soloist parts both as separate parts (for analysis) and combined with other soloists (e.g., as in recitatives). It makes possible the representation of keyboard works both as single files (for printing) and as separate tracks (for analysis).

Header Format:

  record 1:  free 
  record 2:  free 
  record 3:  free  
  record 4:  [date]  [encoder] 
  record 5:  WK#:[work number]   MV#:[movement number]   
  record 6:  [source]  
  record 7:  [work title]  
  record 8:  [movement title]  
  record 9:  [name of part]  
  record 10: free (we put in [mode], [movement type] and [voice]) 
  record 11: Group memberships: [name1] [name2] ...
  record 12: [name1]: part [x] or [number in group]
  record 13:  ... 
    ... (as needed)
  

Note: In the typesetting process, a part name (record 9) can be forced onto two lines by inserting "//" at the desired break.


The main section of an S-file follows directly after the header. The end of the main section is marked by a special end-of-movement record consisting of the five characters, "/FINE". All records between the header and the /FINE record are data records (with the exception of records between comment designator flags). The order of these records is an integral part of the information contained in the file. The first character in each data record functions as a control code, describing the type of information contained in the record. For certain data types, such as notes, the first character also contains data information. This system of describing record types with a control code allows for significant future expansion of the the S-file format. At the moment, there are twenty-one control codes and fourteen data types.

The optional footnote section begins after the /FINE record. The end of an S-file is marked by a special end-of-file record consisting of the four characters, "/END". If there is no footnote section, the /FINE record may be omitted. The format of the footnote section is left up to discretion of the encoder. The footnote section may contain musical data. In this case, a record with an exclamation mark (!) in column one is used to signal that records in the musical data format will follow. A second record with an (!) in column one will signal that the the following records are no longer in the musical data format.

S-file data may come from several sources. There may be more than one original source, and there may also be one or more levels of editorial additions/corrections to the musical data. It is important that the S-file format be able to distinguish between these various sources and levels of information. Because of the complicated nature of this problem, several methods are provided for tagging data according to source.

2 1. Level numbers

The principal technique for distinguishing between sources and/or levels of editing are the level numbers. Each data record has a column set asside for labelling that record as belonging to a particular level. In this manner, any musical attributes (e.g. time signature, key, tempo designation), any musical directives (e.g. dynamics, tempo changes, etc.), any musical notes or bar lines may be identified with a particular source or level of editing. In addition, a wide variety of musical notations which are attached to a note such as ornaments, articulations, slurs, phrase markings, fingerings, local dynamics, etc., may assigned a level number. In this way, the same note may have editorial markings from several different levels attached to it. There are 35 possible levels, and the assignment of meaning to these levels is the responsibility of the encoder.

3 2. Footnotes

Every data record has a column set aside for specifying a footnote. The set of characters used in the footnote column and the assignment of their meaning is left to the discretion of the encoder. The purpose of the footnotes is to provide the encoder the opportunity to add additional information at various points in the data file. Such information might include alternate readings, additional measures of music, written out ornaments, or any discussion of the sources or the editorial process.

4 3. Font designators

One way that editions distinguish between the various levels of editing is by using different fonts. For example, upright as opposed to italic fonts may be used to indicate designations which appear in the orignal source. Source distinctions may also be indicated through the use of different font sizes. The S-file font designator provides a method of specifying different fonts and thereby distinguishing the sources of information. The font designator is a one digit number, the interpretation of which is left up to the encoder. In cases where the font designator is introduced as part of a line of ASCII data (e.g., "un poco f", with the "f" being in a different font from the "un poco"), the character "!" followed immediately by the font number is used (e.g., un poco !1f, where 1 in this example might be the encoder's designator for the standard music font).

5 Data Types

At the moment there are fourteen data types:

  1. musical attributes 
  2. musical directions 
  3. bar lines 
  4. regular notes and rests 
  5. extra note in a regular chord 
  6. grace notes and cue notes 
  7. extra grace/cue note in a chord 
  8. figured harmony 
  9. forward or back space in time 
 10. continuation line 
 11. comments 
 12. end of music/end of file 
 13. sound directions 
 14. print suggestions 

6 Special concepts and requirements for CCARH music printing

In addition to the formal structure of the S-file, there are some extra rules that must be followed in order for the CCARH Autoset program to process the files for display and printing.

6.1 1. Concept of division pointer

S-files are a set of ordered records; roughly speaking, the order is chronological. The time keeper is an invisible pointer called the division pointer. The division pointer is set to 1 at the beginning of each measure. Duration values in columns 6-8 (regular notes and rests, irests and backups) advance or backup the division pointer. The division pointer should not be backed up to less than one. You cannot backup over a measure boundary. The time length of a measure is defined by the greatest value attained by the division pointer. The CCARH Autoset program requires that the final value of the division pointer be equal to its greatest value.

6.2 2. Concept of the figure division pointer

Whereas figured harmonies are normally located on a division pointer boundary, it sometimes happens that we would like figured to be offset (forward) from a division pointer. In this case, the offset value is determined by the figure division pointer. For each advance of the division pointer, the figure division pointer is set to zero. The figure division pointer is advanced by figured harmony data by the amount specified in columns 6-8. The CCARH Autoset program requires that the sum of a division pointer and its associated figure division pointer must always be less than the final value of the division pointer (time length of the measure).

6.3 3. Concept of the musical direction offset

Musical directions are normally located on a division pointer boundary, but there are occasions when we would like musical directions to be offset (forward) from a division pointer. In this case, the offset value is contained in columns 6-8. The CCARH Autoset program requires that the sum of a division pointer any musical direction offset associated with it must always be less than the final value of the division pointer (time length of the measure).

6.4 4. Concept of the cue note pointer

Cue notes do not advance the division pointer; they have their own time pointer, the cue note pointer. Any advance of the division pointer sets the cue note pointer to zero. The cue note pointer is advanced by the note value of the cue note. In this respect, cue notes are not as flexible as regular notes; i.e., the set of possible lengths is limited to what regular notation allows. Autoset converts the cue note duration (e.g., eighth note) into a fixed number of divisions, and this amount is added to the division pointer to determine the location of the cue note. The CCARH Autoset program requires that the final value of the cue note pointer + the division pointer must always be less than the final value of the division pointer (time length of the measure).

6.5 5. Grace notes

Grace notes take their logical position from the value of the division pointer. As far as Autoset is concerned, grace notes are "piled on top of" whatever regular musical object comes next in the file. Space is later made for them to precede that object. Graces note normally precede regular notes; but they may also precede rests or a measure line.

6.6 6. Order of objects at the end of a measure

When the division pointer is at its greatest (final) value, it is still possible to place objects of the types: musical attributes and musical directions. When both types occur at the end of a measure, The CCARH Autoset program requires that musical attributes (i.e., records starting with $) be placed first, followed by musical directions (i.e., records starting with *). Left unexplained at this point is where grace notes fit into this order (since grace notes can also occur at the end of a measure). I don't know the answer.


7 Data Format -- control code in column one

7.1 1. Musical attributes: control code = $

     column 1:        "$" 
     column 2:        level number (optional) 
     column 3:        footnote column 
     columns 4--80:   attribute fields 

The record may contain one or more fields; fields are initiated by the field identifier and terminated by a blank. In the case of clefs and directives, the field identifier may contain a number, which is the staff (1 or 2 at the moment) to which the clef or directive belongs. The absence of a number indicates staff number one.


                                          field       field 
             field type                 identifier  data type 
       ----------------------           ----------  --------- 
        key                                 K:       integer (integer) 
        divisions per quarter note          Q:       pos. int.  
        time designation                    T:     two integers 
        clef                                C:       integer 
        clef                                C#:      integer 
        transposing part                    X:       integer 
        number of staves for part           S:       integer (def = 1) 
        number of instruments represented   I:       integer (def = 1) 
        directive (last field on line)      D:     ASCII string 
        directive (last field on line)      D#:    ASCII string 
  
       example:   K:-2  Q:8  T:3/8  C:4   C2:22 
                  D:Allegro ma non troppo 
  
       key code:  The numbers -7 to +7 are reserved for standard
                  key signatures.  Minus numbers are for flats;
                  Positive numbers are for sharps.  
                  It is possible to specify accidentals in 
                  editorial brackets.   Sharps may be added as a 
                  positive number in parentheses; flats may be 
                  added as a negative number in parentheses.  
                  Examples:  K:2(+1)  K:0(+2)  K:0(-1)  K:-2(-1) 
                  Not allowed:  K:2(-1)   K:-1(+1) 
                  Other integer codes may be assigned at the 
                  discretion of the encoder.  
  
       time designation:  Time designation is given by two non-
                  negative integers separated by a slash (/).
                  The first integer is normally the time numerator  
                  and the second integer is normally the time
                  denominator.  Special codes for time signatures
                  are shown below:
 
                       1 1 = common time   
                       0 0 = alla breve  
                       2 0 = simple 2  
                       3 0 = simple 3  
          
                  Other codes with a 0 denominator may be devised
                  by the encoder to represent special time 
                  notations.
   
       divisions per quarter note:  This parameter can only be 
                  specified at the beginning of a piece or directly 
                  after a controlling bar line.  Specifying it 
                  at other locations makes it difficult to combine 
                  separate parts for printing and for MIDI output.  
       clef code: The standard clefs are represented by a positive
                  integer between 1 and 85.  The tens digit of the
                  code specifies the clef sign and the ones digit
                  specifies the staff line to which the clef sign
                  refers.         
 
                  clef sign codes: 0 = G-clef 
                                   1 = C-clef 
                                   2 = F-clef   
                                   3 = G-clef transposed down
                                        (modern clef for tenors)
                                   4 = C-clef      "     down   
                                   5 = F-clef      "     down   
                                   6 = G-clef      "     up   
                                   7 = C-clef      "     up   
                                   8 = F-clef      "     up   
  
                  line numbers:    1 = highest line
                                   5 = lowest line
                  note: a clef code = 0 denotes a single line staff 
                        for use with certain percussion instruments


       transposing part:  This integer (positive or negative) 
                  indicates a transposing interval, if there is 
                  one, and/or a doubling of the part an octave 
                  lower.  The base-40 system is used.  23 means 
                  the music sounds a fifth higher than it is 
                  written; -23 means the music sounds a fifth 
                  lower than it is written.  Adding 1000 to the 
                  number indicates a doubling of the part an 
                  octave lower (e.g., vc and bass on the same 
                  part or 8' and 16' sound on an organ pedal 
                  line.) 
       number of staves:  This integer (1 or 2 at the moment) 
                  indicates the number of staves the part or 
                  parts will be written on.  This number can 
                  change within a movement.  The number of staves 
                  will automatically be set to 2 if a "C2:" or 
                  a "D2:" is encountered.  
  
       number of instruments represented:  This integer (1 or more) 
                  indicates the number of independent instruments 
                  represented by the parts.  If this number is more 
                  than one, certain printing conventions will hold.  
                    (1) notes with the same stem direction will be 
                        combined into one chord 
                    (2) if more than one voice is represented in a 
                        measure on a staff, then each voice will 
                        follow its own set of accidentals within 
                        the measure.  
       directive: This ASCII string data group is terminated by
                  the end of the record.  For this reason, if 
                  a record contains a directive, the directive    
                  must be the last field of the record.  Directives
                  may contain font designators.
  
  2. Musical directions:  control code = *  
  
       column 1:      "*" 
  
       columns 2-5:   blank 

       columns 6-8:   optional forward offset (measured in units of 
                        duration and right justified in the field).  
                        Use of this field allows the encoder to 
                        place a musical direction at a division 
                        that does not otherwise contain a musical 
                        record.  
       columns 9-12:  blank 
      
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information 
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: track number (necessary if two or more wedges, 
                      sets of dashes, 8va transpositions, etc.) 
       column 16:     blank 
       columns 17-18: type of direction (one or two letters) 
  
         1. rehearsal numbers/letters 
           A = segno sign 
         2. directions expressed in words 
           B = right justified ASCII string 
           C = centered ASCII string 
           D = left justified ASCII string 
            (may be combined with types E,F,G,H,J) 
  
         3. wedges    
           E = begin wedge 
           F = end wedge 
            (may be combined with types B,C,D,G)
  
         4. letter dynamics
           G = letter dynamics           (given in ASCII string) 
            (may be combined with types B,C,D,E,F,H,J)
                
         5. dashes ( - - - - - )   
           H = begin dashes (after words) 
           J = end dashes 
            (may be combined with types B,C,D,G)
  
         6. pedal (pianoforte)  
           P = begin pedal: Ped.  
           Q = release pedal:  * 
  
         7. rehearsal numbers or letters in a box 
           R = rehearsal number or letter 
              This generates a "D" type record with 
              a box around it.  The font size and the 
              length of the string determine the size of 
              the box.  
         8. octave shifts (in the printing process)
           U = shift notes up (usually by 8va) 
           V = shift notes down (usually by 8va) 
           W = stop shift 
              Notes that are difficult to notate because they are 
              very low (usually in bass clef) are shifted up; notes 
              that are difficult to notate because they are very 
              high (usually in treble clef) are shifted down.  
  
         9. tie terminators 
           X = tie terminator (generates a Mark object) 
              The pitch of the tie being terminated appears starting   
              in column 25.  
              Note: For the moment, the following arcane rule should be 
                    observed in order to make the software work properly: 
                    If a tie terminator is used to terminate a tie from 
                    the previous measure, the previous "measure" record 
                    should be so marked with a "&" flag.  
       column 19:     location flag (optional) 
           ' ' = indication below line 
            +  = indication above line  
            (may be used by types A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H)    
       column 20:     blank 
       columns 21-23: numerical parameter (optional) 
  
            for types E and F:    wedge spread    
            for types U and V:    shift size (when not 8va) 
  
            Wedge spread is measured in tenths of staff line  
            space.  10 units = space between two staff lines  
  
       column 24:     staff number (' ' = 1) 
           Used in the case of music represented on more than 
           one staff.  

 
       columns 25..:  ASCII word string    used in A,B,C,D,G and X 
   
    Examples:
     
       1. cresc. - - - - - - - -  ff
     
          Starting record:  DH      cresc.
          Ending record:    JG      ff
     
       2. f <decreasing wedge> p
     
          Starting record:  GE  15  f
          Ending record:    FG   0  p
      
       3. <increasing wedge> p
        
          Starting record:  E    0
          Ending record     FG  15  p
       
  3. Bar line:  control code = m  
  
       column 1:      "m"  
  
       columns 2-7:   "easure"  =  regular bar line  
                      "dotted"  =  dotted bar line   
                      "double"  =  (light) double bar line   
                      "heavy1"  =  heavy bar line  
                      "heavy2"  =  light-heavy double bar  
                      "heavy3"  =  heavy-light double bar  
                      "heavy4"  =  heavy-heavy double bar  
                      
       column 8:      empty  
   
       columns 9-12:  optional bar number for this bar   
                       (left justified)
   
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: blank
       column 16:     blank 
 
       columns 17-80: flags:  * = non-controlling bar line   
                              ~ = continue Craig across bar line   
                              & = signals a non-terminated tie in previous bar
                              A = segno sign at bar  
                              F = fermata sign over bar line 
                              E = fermata sign under bar line 
                     start-end# = start ending #   
                      stop-end# = stop ending #    
                      disc-end# = discontinue ending # line  
                             :| = repeat backward    
                             |: = repeat forward   
  
          Bar lines are divided into two types: controlling and
          non-controlling.  Controlling bar lines are lines which
          run through an entire score.  In this respect, they   
          mark the beginning of a new global measure.  Non-
          controlling bar lines need not have this property.
          Non-controlling bar lines may not serve for line
          breaks or page breaks.  The designation of a bar line
          as non-controlling is to some extent left to the
          discretion of the encoder, e.g., in the case of a
          double bar in the middle of a normal measure, this
          could be controlling or non controlling.  However, in
          a case such as the Minuet from the Mozart opera "Don
          Giovanni," where the score uses three different meters
          simultaneously, the non-aligned bar lines must be 
          designated as non-controlling.  
  
  4. Regular note/rest   control code = A,B,C,D,E,F,G or r  
  
       columns 1-4:   pitch or rest, Cff0 to B##9, C4 = middle C 
  
       column 5:      blank

       columns 6-8:   duration (right justified) 
   
       column 9:      tie flag   " " = no tie 
                                 "-" = tie
 
           From the data in columns 1 to 9, (i.e., pitch and 
           duration), it is possible to reproduce aural output
           of the musical part) 
  
           Note: Normally a note with a tie must be followed 
                 immediately by another note of the same pitch 
                 (in that pass).  It can happen that a tie goes 
                 nowhere (e.g. in first endings or da capos).  
                 In this case you must use an "X" type musical 
                 direction to terminate the tie.  If the non- 
                 terminated tie crosses a measure line, that 
                 measure line should be flagged with a "&" flag.  
       columns 10-12: blanks
      
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information, track # 
 
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: track number (optional) 
           Where more that one musical line is represented in 
           a part (e.g., Oboe I,II or keyboard music), it is 
           essential for purposes of analysis to know for each 
           note (or chord) the musical line or "track" to which 
           the note belongs.  In some cases this is "interpretive" 
           information, provided as a service by the encoder.  
              
       column 16:     blank 
 
       columns 17-22: note description
 
         column 17: note type
                      L,b,w,h,q,e,s,t,x,y,z  (Longa to 256th note)
                            H,Q,E,S,T,X,Y,Z  (Half to 256th note) 
                      B,A,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1  (Longa to 256th cue-size) 
                        When the control code = "r" (rest), column 17 
                        may be blank.  This signals the music typesetter 
                        that the rest is to be represented as a centered 
                        whole rest, regardless of its duration.  
                        For half notes and smaller, both upper and lower 
                        case letters will work, but in general the upper 
                        case alternative should NOT be used.  In the case 
                        of notes, it makes absolutely no difference, but 
                        with rests, using an upper case letter will cause 
                        the music typesetter to replace the letter with a 
                        blank when the part inclusion flag (General print 
                        suggestion x) = 1.  The part will be omitted from 
                        a system when there are only whole rests in that 
                        part in that system (See 14. Print Suggestions: 
                        section 11).  


         column 18: dot flag    " " = no dot 
                                "." = single dot
                                ":" = double dot
                                ";" = triple dot 
                                "!" = quadruple dot 
         column 19: actual accidental flag
               
                    # = sharp               X = sharp-sharp
                    n = natural             & = flat-flat
                    f = flat                S = natural-sharp
                    x = double sharp        F = natural-flat
                
         columns 20-22: designation of time modification 
                      Two digits, separated by a colon (:)
                      For standard cases, such as triplets (3:2),
                      the colon and the second digit are usually
                      omitted.  The numbers 10--35 are
                      represented by the letters A--Z.
  
       column 23:     stem direction  
                           d  = down  
                           u  = up  
                          " " = no stem 
  
       column 24:     staff number (" " = 1) 
  
           Used in the case of music represented on more than
           one staff.

       column 25:     blank   
 
       columns 26-31: beams (up to six levels = 256th note) 
                           [  = start beam          
                           =  = continue beam   
                           ]  = end beam  
                           /  = forward hook  
                           \  = backward hook   
  
                        column 26 is for eighth beams, 
                               27 for sixteenth, 
                                  ...  
  
       columns 32-43: other notations
    
            Codes are read from left to right.  The character "&",
            followed by a digit (1..9,A..Z), is used to indicate
            a specified data level.  All codes to the left of
            the first "&" belong to the base data level.     
  
            The following codes are somewhat arbitrary.  They
            have been chosen for representing common musical 
            notation for Western music from the 16th through
            the 19th centuries.  The encoding scheme is not
            complete but may be augmented and/or altered to
            meet the special requirements of the music being
            encoded.
 
  for more on ties and slurs, see type 14, "print suggestions" 
         Ties, Slurs, Tuples            Articulations and Accents  
         --------------------           -------------------------- 
          -  = tie                       A  = vertical accent (/\) 

(04/22/08) J = overhand back tie/slur V = vertical accent (\/) (04/22/08) K = underhand back tie/slur > = horizontal accent

          (  = open slur1                .  = staccato 
          )  = close slur1               _  = legato 
          [  = open slur2                =  = line with dot 
          ]  = close slur2                      under it 
          {  = open slur3                i  = spiccato 
          }  = close slur3               ,  = breath mark 
          z  = open slur4 
          x  = close slur4 
          *  = start tuplet             Accidentals on ornaments (must 
          !  = stop tuplet               follow directly after ornament) 
                                        -------------------------------- 
         Ornaments                       s  = sharp   (ss = double sharp) 
         ----------                      h  = natural 
          t  = tr.                       b  = flat    (bb = double flat) 
          r  = turn                      u  = next accidental is below 
          k  = delayed turn                   rather than above ornament.  
          w  = shake                          In case accidentals appear 
          ~  = wavy line (trill)              above and below ornament, 
          c  = continue wavy line             the accidental above should 
          M  = mordant                        be encoded first.  
          j  = slide                     U  = next accidental follows                
          T  = tremulo (New 01/07/06)         tr. on same line (used only 
                                              with trills) 
         Technical Indications          Other Indications and Codes 
         ---------------------          --------------------------- 
          v  = up bow                    S  = arpeggiate (chords) 
          n  = down bow                  F  = upright fermata 
          o  = harmonic                  E  = inverted fermata 
          0  = open string               G  = G. P. (grand pause) 
          Q  = thumb position (cello)    p  = piano (pp, ppp, etc.) 
  1,2,3,4,5  = fingering                 f  = forte (ff, fff, etc., fp) 
          :  = next fingering is a       m  = mezzo (mp, mf) 
                substitution e.g.,       Z  = sfz (also sf) 
                  5:42:1 = 5-4           Zp = sfp 
                           2-1           R  = rfz 
                                         ^  = accidental above note 
                                         +  = cautionary/written 
                                                  out accidental 


                 Notations sorted by ASCII number 
               ==================================== 
          A  = vertical accent (/\)      a  = unassigned 
          B  = unassigned                b  = flat    (bb = double flat)  (for ornaments)
          C  = unassigned                c  = continue wavy line 
          D  = unassigned                d  = unassigned 
          E  = inverted fermata          e  = unassigned 
          F  = upright fermata           f  = forte (ff, fff, etc., fp) 
          G  = G. P. (grand pause)       g  = unassigned 
          H  = unassigned                h  = natural (for ornaments) 
          I  = unassigned                i  = spiccato 
          J  = overhand back tie/slur    j  = slide 
          K  = underhand back tie/slur   k  = delayed turn 
          L  = unassigned                l  = unassigned 
          M  = mordant                   m  = mezzo (mp, mf) 
          N  = unassigned                n  = down bow 
          O  = unassigned                o  = harmonic 
          P  = unassigned                p  = piano (pp, ppp, etc.) 
          Q  = thumb position (cello)    q  = unassigned 
          R  = rfz                       r  = turn 
          S  = arpeggiate (chords)       s  = sharp   (ss = double sharp)  (for ornaments)
          T  = tremulo (New 01/07/06)    t  = tr.  
          U  = next accidental follows   u  = next accidental is below     (for ornaments)
          V  = vertical accent (\/)      v  = up bow 
          W  = unassigned                w  = shake 
          X  = unassigned                x  = close slur4 
          Y  = unassigned                y  = unassigned 
          Z  = sfz (also sf)             z  = open slur4 
          Zp = sfp 
                         Non alphabetic 
                       ------------------ 
      33       !  = stop tuplet              54       6 
      34       "                             55       7 
      35       #                             56       8 
      36       $                             57       9 
      37       %                             58       :  = next fingering 
      38       &  = editorial switch         59       ; 
      39       '                             60       < 
      40       (  = open slur1               61       =  = line with dot under it
      41       )  = close slur1              62       >  = horizontal accent
      42       *  = start tuplet             63       ?  
      43       +  = cautionary accidental    64       @  = dead space (do not assign)
      44       ,  = breath mark              91       [  = open slur2 
      45       -  = tie                      92       \ 
      46       .  = staccato                 93       ]  = close slur2 
      47       /                             94       ^  = accidental above note
      48       0  = open string              95       _  = legato 
      49       1  = fingering                96       ` 
      50       2  = fingering                123      {  = open slur3 
      51       3  = fingering                124      | 
      52       4  = fingering                125      }  = close slur3 
      53       5  = fingering                126      ~  = wavy line (trill)


       columns 44-80: text:  multiple lines of text set off by |   
                             example:  Deck|See|Fast  
  
          Special text codes:  "-" at the end of a word generates 
                                     hyphons to the next text word 
                                     on that line.  
                               "-" alone continues hyphons.  
                               "_" at the end of a word generates 
                                     an extension line to the next word 
                                     on that line.  
                               "_" alone continues the extension line.  
                               "&" can be used as "pseudo-text" for the 
                                     purpose of ending an extension 
                                     line in the situation where there 
                                     is no further text (see "_" above).  
                                     Otherwise, the extension line may 
                                     continue indefinitely.  The "&" is 
                                     silent; i.e., it generates no text 
                                     output.  
                               ",.!?;:" punctuation when followed by 
                                     "_" will be placed at the end of 
                                     the extension line.  
                               "\0+" = word join character 
                               "\+"  = used to indicate a "space" 


  5. Extra note in a chord    control code = ' ' (blank) 
  
       column 1:      blank   
       columns 2-5:   pitch (see regular note)  
       columns 6-8:   blanks  
       column 9:      tie flag  
       columns 10-42: same as for regular note  
  
  6. Grace notes, cue-notes    control code = g or c 
  
       column 1:      g = grace note  
                      c = cue note (grace size, but written in time)
       columns 2-5:   pitch/rest (see regular note) 
       columns 6-7:   blanks  
       column 8:      note type   
                         0 = eighth note with slash   
                         1 = 256th note   
                         2 = 128th note   
                         3 = 64th note  
                         4 = 32nd note  
                         5 = 16th note  
                         6 = 8th note   
                         7 = quarter note   
                         8 = half note  
                         9 = whole note   
                         A = breve        
  
       column 9:      blank   
       columns 10-80: same as regular notes 
  
  6a. Arpeggios                control code = g 
       The arpeggio must be represented as a special case of the 
       grace note class.  Unlike other types of ornamentation, which 
       occupy space above or below the notes to which they apply, 
       the arpeggio is situated along side a chord (or possibly a 
       group of chords in the case of the grand staff) and requires 
       extra horizontal space, but not extra time-space.  In this 
       key respect, it is like a grace note, and unlike any other 
       type of musical object.  
       column 1:      g = grace note class) 
       columns 2-5:   pitch 
                         Any pitch will work.  However the selection of 
                         pitch will effect the amount of horizonal space 
                         allocated for the arpeggio.  The spacing rule 
                         follows that used for grace notes.  In particular,
                         a pitch which "bumps up" against the following 
                         chord will be allocated more space.  
       columns 6-7:   blanks  
       column 8:      note type   
                         X = arpeggio 
  
       columns 9-12:  blanks 
      
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information, track # 
 
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: track number (optional) 
       column 16:     blank 
 
       columns 17-21: vertical parameters for the arpeggio 
 
         column 17-18:  space on staff where arpeggio begins 
                          0 = space above staff line (G5 in treble clef) 
                          1 = space between first and second lines (E5) 
                                etc.  
                         -1 = treble B5 
         column 19: double staff flag (grand staff only) 


         column 20-21:  space on staff where arpeggio ends  
                          4 = space above bottom line (F4 in treble clef) 
                          5 = space below bottom line (D4 in treble clef) 
                                etc.  
       columns 22-23: blanks 
  
       column 24:     staff number (" " = 1) 
  
           Used in the case of music represented on more than
           one staff.

       columns 25--:  not used  
  7. Extra Grace/Cue note in a chord  
  
       column 1:      g or c (same as 7 above)  
       column 2:      blank   
       columns 3-6:   pitch (see regular note)  
       column 7:      blank
       column 8:      note type (same as 7 above)   
       column 9:      blank   
       columns 10-80: same as other grace and cue notes 
  
  8. Figured harmony    control code = f  
  
       column 1:      f = figured harmony   
       column 2:      number of figure fields 
       columns 3-5:   blanks  
       columns 6-8:   advance of figure division pointer 
         
          Figures take their position from the first regular
          note that follows the figure records.  In the case
          where the figures change during the duration of a
          note, the advancing parameter (columns 6-8) is used
          to indicate the elapsed time between changes.  In
          the case where a figure appears after a note has
          sounded, the "blank" figure is used as a place
          holder to advance the figure division pointer.
 
       columns 9-12:  blanks 
      
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information
 
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: blank 
       column 16:     blank 
  
       columns 17--:  figure fields 
  
           The figure fields are set off by one or more blanks.   
         Figure numbers may extend from 1 to 19.  They may be 
         modified in front by #,n,f, and x.  They may be modified   
         afterward by #,n,f,+,\,/ and x.  The #,n,f and x signs 
         may stand alone as figures.  A "b" indicates a blank 
         figure.  This is used as a place holder in a list and  
         also to start a continuation line with no figure.  The   
         first figure field is for the top of the figure list.  
                                          6   
         For example, in the figure list #4 , the 6 would be    
                                          2   
         represented in the first field.  
    
                  figures, signs and modifiers: 
                       1        # = sharp 
                       2        n = natural 
                       3        f = flat 
                       4        x = double sharp 
                       5        + = augment (used with fig.  
                                      nos. 2,4,5, and 6) 
                       6        \ = diminish (used with fig.  
                                      nos. 6 and 7) 
                       7        - = short line in 
                       8        _ = long line from previous figure 
                       9        b = blank 
                      10 
                      ...   
  
         It is possible to represent editorial figures by placing them 
         inside parentheses ().  No empty space is permitted inside    
         parentheses.  


  9. Forward and Back space in time    control code = i,b   
 
       columns 1-5:   "irst " =  forward space (invisible rest) 
                                    (or "irest") 
                      "back " =  backspace  
  
       columns 6-8:   duration to skip forward or back up 
       
       columns 9--12: blanks   
      
       columns 13-15: footnote and level information
 
         column 13: footnote flag (blank = none)
         column 14: level number (optional)
         column 15: blank
       column 16:     blank 
   
       column 17:     pass number (optional)  
  
          This feature can be used to express parallel action
          in the same part (e.g., keyboard music).
  
 10. Continuation line    control code = a
     
       column 1:      a = append to previous line
     
       columns 2-16:  blanks

       columns 17-80: continuation of previous line
 11. Comments             control codes = & and @
       column 1:      @ = this line is a comment
                      & = enter comment mode.  All subsequent
                          records are comments until another
                          record with a & in column 1 appears.
                          "&" in column one acts like a toggle
                          switch between "data" mode and "comment" 
                          mode.
    
 11a. Comments used as metacodes 
       The @ comment line can also be used to send metacodes.    
       At the moment, we have only one example of this.  
       1. Conversion of Musedata to SCORE page data.  
         a) Musical tracks 
            The @ comment line can be used to assign musical tracks
            to staff numbers.  In the SCORE conversion process, this 
            information is required when there are more than one 
            musical track in a file.  
            The convention in files representing two or more 
            instruments on a single staff is to assign a track 
            number to the ORed instrument numbers, with 
            instrument 1 being assigned track 1, instrument 2 
            being assinged track 2, and instrument 3 being assigned 
            track 4.  Thus following track assignments: 
               Instrument 1 alone    .  .  .  track 1 
               Instrument 2 alone    .  .  .  track 2 
               Instruments 1 and 2   .  .  .  track 3 
               Instrument 3 alone    .  .  .  track 4 
               Instruments 1 and 3   .  .  .  track 5 
                  etc.  
            The format for assigning tracks to staves is this: 
            @  SCORECON track assignment:  (#,#)  (#,#)  (#,#)  ...  
            where each track in the file is represented by an ordered 
            pair (#,#).  The first # is the track number, and the 
            second number is the staff number.  Even in the case 
            where there is only one staff, the SCORE conversion process 
            requires this information whenever there is more than one 
            track.  
            The  @  SCORECON track assignment:  line may appear several 
            times in a file, but it must always be at the beginning of 
            a measure before any musical data.  NOTE: It is possible 
            in SCORE for a track to appear on more than one stave of the 
            grand staff within a measure, but each track must have a 
            "native" or "home" staff within each measure.  
         b) Instrument number 
            The @ comment line may be used to assign the instrument 
            number to a file.  In the simplest case (default), the 
            instrument number is the same as the part number in the 
            scrcon group, and comment record is required, But in 
            certain cases, the instrument numbers will diverge from 
            the default.  If two separate instruments are represented 
            in the same file, e.g., violoncello and basso, then the 
            instrument number must be a concatination of two numbers 
            in the form <1st number> * 100 + <2nd number> 
            The format for assigning instrument numbers is this: 
            @  SCORECON instrument number:<number> 
         c) Instrument transposition 
            The @ comment line may be used to communicate to the score 
            conversion a transposing interval.  For transposing   
            instruments, the transposing interval is the difference 
            between what the instrument reads and what the instrument 
            sounds.  This difference is represented by a base40 number.  
            For example, Clarinet in B-flat sounds a whole tone lower 
            read.  The whole tone in base40 is represented by the 
            number 6.  So one whole tone down would be -6.  Because 
            of the necessity of representing both negative and positive 
            numbers, the interval size is expressed by the formula: 
            size number = (50 + base40-interval) 
            The format for assigning transpositions is this: 
            @  SCORECON transposition:<size number> 
            For Clarinets in B-file, the @  SCORECON record would be: 
            @  SCORECON transposition:44         
         d) Pitch transposition 
            The @ comment line may be used to communicate to the score 
            conversion a pitch transposing interval.  This transposition 
            is applied on top of, that is, in addition to any instrument 
            transposition.  The interval is represented by a base40 number.
            The reason we need a pitch transposing interval in addition 
            to the instrument transposing interval is that the instrument 
            transposing interval is fixed at the beginning of a movement 
            and applies to all notes in a movement, e.g., Horns in E-flat.  
            But occasionally the instrument transposition interval changes 
            mid-movement.  For example, Beethoven in his Third Symphony, 1st
            movement, writes for horns in E-flat.  But at measure 412, he 
            momentarily switches to horns in F.  In this case, we have 
            horns in E-flat and horns in F notated on the same staff line, 
            so even if we could change the instrument transposition to 
            "horns in F," and represent this value on the staff line, the 
            computed note pitches would not all be correct.  
            The format for assigning pitch transpositions is this: 
            @  SCORECON pitch transposition:<size number> 
            where <size number>, a simple base40 value, is the amount 
            by which we need to alter the notated pitch so that the  
            correct sound is produced.  In our Beethoven example above, 
            the notes played by the horns in F would be notated a whole 
            tone higher if they were interpreted as notes to be played 
            by horns in E-flat.  So we need to add a whole step (6 in  
            base40) to every pitch, while these are notated for horns 
            in F.  When the score switches back to horns in E-flat, the 
            pitch transposition must be reset to its default, which is 
            zero.  
            The  @  SCORECON pitch transposition:  line may appear several 
            times in a file, but it must always be at the beginning of 
            a measure before any musical data.  


 12. End of music data or end of file   control code = /

       column 1:      /       

       columns 2-5:   "FINE" = end of music data
                      "END"  = end of file

          In the case where there is no footnote section, the
          "/FINE" record may be omitted.
 13. Sound directions 
       column 1:      S 
       A Sound Direction record can follow any record that produces 
       a sound or influences time in some way.  This includes types 
       4 to 8: regular notes and rests, extra note in a regular 
       chord, grace notes and cue notes, extra grace/cue note in a 
       chord, and figured harmony.  
       Sound information can be given on a variety of attributes 
       connected with a note.  This is a complicated subject, for 
       which I am not yet ready to attempt a full description.  I 
       am inclined to suggest the following mechanism, as a first 
       pass at the problem: 
       Since sound directions may apply to a wide variety of 
       musical attributes, e.g., (1) the attack and dynamic 
       envelope of a note, (2) the time of attack and length of a 
       note (or rest), and (3) directions for performing ornaments, 
       it makes sense to use a multiple field system, similar to 
       the one used for musical attributes ($).  In this case, each 
       field is introduced by a capital "C", followed immediately 
       by a number and a colon, e.g., "C8:" or "C23:".  The meaning 
       is that the data following this designation (all columns up 
       to the next field designation or to the end of the record), 
       will apply to the item in the specified column number of the 
       previous record.  For example, if the previous record were a 
       note, and there were a trill indicated by a "t" in column 33 
       of that record, then C33: would indicate a sound direction 
       field containing data on how that trill should be realized 
       in a sound file.  Of course, each ornament, or pitch, or 
       duration, will have a different set of needs regarding its 
       sound specification, and these will have to receive further 
       definition as the specification for this type of record 
       develops.  At the moment, our specific need relates to 
       specifying information for the following situations: 
       1. Onset and length of grace notes 
          Field designator:  C1: 
          Data elements:     p     = steal time from previous note 
                             f     = steal time from following note 
                                       (default) 
                             m     = don't steal time; make time 
                                       (free cadenzas, etc.) 
                             t<#>  Case 1: stealing time 
                                   = percentage (0 to 100) of time 
                                     to steal for this note.  The 
                                     time is specified as a 
                                     percentage of the duration of 
                                     the controlling note, even 
                                     though the time may not be 
                                     stolen from this note.  The 
                                     controlling note is the first 
                                     regular note following the 
                                     grace note.  In the case where 
                                     the grace note comes just 
                                     before a bar line, the first 
                                     note in the next measure is 
                                     used as the controlling note.  
                             t<#>  Case 2: making time 
                                   = number of real-time divisions 
                                     for this note.  There is no 
                                     limit to the number used.  All 
                                     regular notes sounding at this 
                                     point will play out their sound 
                                     and then wait while these grace 
                                     notes "do their thing." 
          Notes on adding time:  If time is added by specifying "m" type 
          grace notes, there are two limitations that must be observed.  
            1. The total amount of time added must be representable by 
               divisions in all parts.  For example, if a particular 
               part has 4 divisions per quarter note and a total of 25 
               divisions are added to a measure using C1:m records, 
               then this is the equivalent of adding 25 sixteenth notes.  
               In this case, all other parts must be able to represent 
               the time interval of a sixteenth in this measure.  If 
               there is a part which has 2 divisions per quarter, then 
               a $  Q:4  record must be inserted at the beginning of 
               this measure, and all durations in the measure must be 
               doubled.  A $  Q:2   record must be inserted at the 
               beginning of the next measure to restore the original 
               parameter.  
            2. A part which has extra time added must be assigned to 
               its own midi channel.  For example, if there are 2 oboes 
               and the first oboe has a cadenza (as in the first movement 
               of Beethoven's 5th Symphony), then the oboes may not be 
               assigned to the same midi channel.  


       2. Onset and length of trills, turns, shakes, and wavy lines 
          Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on where the 
                                           ornament is indicated) 
          Data elements:     u     = start on upper note (default) 
                             m     = start on main note 
                             w     = whole-step trill (default) 
                             h     = half-step trill 
                             j     = unison trill 
                             e     = include a two note turn at 
                                       the end of the trill 
                                       (whole step) 
                             f     = include a two note turn at 
                                       the end of the trill 
                                       (half step) 
                             a     = accelerate trill slightly 
                             n<#>  = number of beats (min is 2, 
                                       default is 4) 
                             s<#>  = percentage point for landing 
                                       on second beat of trill 
                                       (default is 25) 
                             t<#>  = percentage point for landing 
                                       on last beat of trill 
                                       (default is 75) 
                             The default trill (uwn4s25t75) is a 
                             four note trill starting on the upper 
                             whole step and having four equal 
                             beats.  


       3. Onset and length of (inverted) mordents 
          Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on where the 
                                           ornament is indicated) 
          Data elements:     m     = start on main note (default) 
                             b     = start on note below main note 
                             w     = whole-step mordent (default) 
                             h     = half-step mordent 
                             a     = accelerate mordent slightly 
                             n<#>  = number of beats (minimum is 2, 
                                       default is 3) 
                             s<#>  = percentage point for landing 
                                       on second beat of trill 
                                       (default is 12) 
                             t<#>  = percentage point for landing 
                                       on last beat of trill 
                                       (default is 24) 
                             The default mordent (mwn3s12t24) is a 
                             three-note snap starting on the main 
                             note and going down a whole step.  
       4. Alternate instrument (pizz. for strings) 
          Field designator:  C2: (to distinguish it from grace note 
                                     information) 
          Data elements:     a     = pizzicato for this note (this 
                                       designation must be contained 
                                       in a sound record which follows 
                                       directly after the note in 
                                       question.) 
                             A     = pizzicato for this note and 
                                       every regular note that 
                                       follows in the file, until 
                                       cancelled.  
                             b     = arco (used to cancel A) 
       5. Da Capo direction and Segno sign and implied |: 
          Field designator:  C0: (because this does not relate to a 
                                     column number) 
          Data elements:     d     = da capo to beginning of 
                                       movement or to Segno sign.  
                                       Normally this record would 
                                       directly precede the "/END" 
                                       or "/FINE" record.  
                             S<#>  = segno sign: da capo to 
                                       this point in the file.  
                                       # = divisions per quarter 
                                       (for information of sound 
                                       and MIDI generating 
                                       programs) 
                             |>    = implied forward repeat dots 
                                       (usually follows a bar line) 
       6. Fine signs (written or implied) 
          Field designator:  C8: 
          Data elements:     F<#>  = Fine sign (written or implied) 
                                     This record should follow any 
                                     final note or rest in a 
                                     movement which has a "da capo" 
                                     direction.  # = actual duration 
                                     of the final note or rest.  
                                     This is needed because some 
                                     "fines" are indicated only by a 
                                     fermata, and these can be over 
                                     notes of different durations in 
                                     different parts!  
                             In the case where there is more than 
                             one active track in the measure with 
                             the "Fine" (i.e., there is a backspace 
                             command in the measure), all final 
                             notes must have their durations 
                             specified by a "Fine" sound record.  
                             In the case of chords, the "Fine" 
                             sound record should follow the last 
                             chord tone record.  
       7. Tempo changes 
          Field designator:  C0: (because this does not relate to a 
                                     column number) 
          Data elements:     W<#>  = new tempo in quarter notes 
                                       per minute.  If parameter 
                                       <#> = 0, this means that 
                                       the sound generating programs 
                                       must ask the user for a value 
                                       At the time of compiling a 
                                       sound (MIDI) file.  
                                 Note: This must be the only data 
                                       element in this sound record.  


       8. Changes in dynamics 
          Field designator:  C0: (because this does not relate to a 
                                     column number) 
          Data elements:     V<#>  = dynamic level (velocity) measured 
                                       as a percent of the default 
                                       (which is forte).  Normally 
                                       the programs constructing MIDI 
                                       performance files assign a flat 
                                       value of 90 to the velocity 
                                       byte.  Occasionally we may want 
                                       to change this value either to 
                                       bring out a part or to suppress 
                                       a part.  MIDI plus compilations 
                                       (for data transmission) are 
                                       not affected by this feature.  
                                 Note: This must be the only data 
                                       element in this sound record.  


 14. Print suggestions 
       column 1:      P 
          Print suggestions come in two types:  General and Specific.  
          General print suggestions can occur anywhere in body of the 
          stage2 data and are used to set general print parameters 
          such as minimum note spacing, default fonts, etc.  
          Specific print suggestions can follow any record that 
          contributes to the printed output of the music.  This includes 
          types 2 through 8: musical directions, bar lines, regular 
          notes and rests, extra notes in a regular chord, grace notes 
          and cue notes, extra grace/cue notes in a chord, and figured 
          harmony.  
       columns 2... until a blank is encountered: 
          A code string (string of codes containing no blanks) 
          indicating the classes of situations to which this suggestion 
          applies.  A space " " in column 2 means that the suggestion 
          is universal; it applies to all printing.  
          The code string may contain letters and/or numbers.  All 
          numbers must be preceded by the "#" sign.                
          
          Numbers refer to the notesize to which the print suggestion 
          applies.  The codes "<" and ">" may be used to indicate all 
          notesizes "less than" or "greater than" a certain number.  
          For example, a print suggestion beginning thus, P#>12, would 
          apply to all notesizes greater than twelve.  
          Letter codes indicate the application to which a print 
          suggestion applies.  
          Codes currently recognized by the software are listed below. 
              "p" = parts 
              "s" = score 
              "k" = skore (conductor's score) 
              "t" = short score (piano vocal) 
              "a" = all applications 
          Note:  If there is a code string present, the designation of 
          notesizes is optional, but the designation of relevent 
          application letter codes is manditory.  The reason for this is 
          that notesize designation is a process of elimination (i.e., 
          don't use this suggestion if the notesize doesn't fit) whereas 
          application designation is a process of inclusion (i.e., use 
          this suggestion only if the relevant letter is present in the 
          code).  The code letter "a" can be used to designate all 
          applications (for a particular set of notesizes).  
        ЪДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДї 
        і Special case 1:  If column 2 contains a "v", the next four    і 
        і columns will contain the version number of autoset for which  і 
        і the print suggestions are valid and have been checked.  If    і 
        і the version of autoset running is different from the version  і 
        і number in the stage2 file, (and the version of autoset is     і 
        і 4.00 or higher), a warning message will be displayed.  When   і 
        і this happens, it is a good idea to check the output of each   і 
        і print suggestion to make sure that the outcome is the desired і 
        і one.  It is expected that changes and improvements will be    і 
        і made to autoset from time to time.                            і 
        АДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДЩ 
        ЪДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДї 
        і Special case 2:  If column 2 contains an "x", the next three  і 
        і columns may contain certain flags that modify the operational і 
        і behavior of the autoset program.                              і 
        і                                                               і 
        і   If the letter "m" is present, then autoset will report the  і 
        і   measures it has completed.  This is useful when trying to   і 
        і   find data errors.                                           і 
        і                                                               і 
        і   If the letter "d" is present, then autoset will allow the   і 
        і   user to enter debug mode at a location specified at run     і 
        і   time.  This is useful in tracing program operation at a     і 
        і   more detailed level.                                        і 
        і                                                               і 
        і   If the letter "s" is present, then autoset will provide     і 
        і   additional information to the output i-files, which will    і 
        і   allow a compressed search file to be built later in the     і 
        і   process.                                                    і 
        АДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДЩ 


       Print suggestions, like sound directions, use a multiple
       field system.  Each field is introduced by a capital "C", 
       followed immediately by a number and a colon, e.g., "C8:" or 
       or "C23:".  The meaning is that the data following this 
       designation (all columns up to the next field designation or 
       to the end of the record), will apply to the item in the 
       specified column number of the previous (non-Sound) record.  
       For example, if the previous record were a note, and there were 
       a slur starting on that note indicated by a "(" in column 33 
       of that record, then C33: would start a field containing one 
       or more suggestions on how that slur should be printed.  At 
       the moment, we can give print suggestions in the following 
       situations: 
       The type of printing for which a suggestion applies (columns 2...) 
       may also be specified in a "C" field.  In this case, the selective 
       number and letter codes(s) described above should follow the column 
       number and precede the colon.  For example, "C33sp:" would 
       indicate a print suggestion applied to the datum in column 33 
       from the previous record and applied only to the printing of a 
       score or a part (and not to a short score).  This feature 
       allows greater selectivity for print suggestions than the use of 
       selective codes starting in column 2.  
       A print suggestion which has a code C0: is a general suggestion 
       and not related to any specific column in a previous record.  


       1. Position of slurs 
          Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on location of 
                                       slur) 
          Data elements:     o     = place slur over the note in 
                                       question 
                             u     = place slur under the note in 
                                       question 
            These suggestions are needed only when the standard 
            algorithms fail to place the slur properly, as sometimes 
            happens with multiple parts on a stave or with double 
            stops in the strings.  


       2. Orientation of ties 
          Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on location 
                                       of tie) 
          Data elements:     o     = over-hand tie (tips down) 
                             u     = under-hand tie (tips up) 
            These suggestions are needed only when the standard 
            algorithms fail to place the tie properly, as sometimes 
            happens with multiple parts on a stave or with double 
            stops in the strings.  


       3. Tuplet and tuplet bracket (default is no bracket) 
          Case I:  For use with start tuplet "*" code 
            Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on location 
                                         of tuplet starter) 
            Data elements:     [     = use continuous square bracket 
                               (     = use continuous slur bracket 
                               :     = use square bracket and break 
                                         in the middle 
                               ;     = use slur bracket and break 
                                         in the middle 
                               i     = place tuplet number inside bracket 
                                         (below, if tips are down; above if
                                         tips are up).  Default is outside.
                               i has meaning only when combined with [ or (
          Case II:  For use with stop tuplet "!" code.  Note: The reason the
                      shift parameters must be used with the stop code is 
                      that the tuplet super-object is generated when the 
                      the stop code is encountered.  
            Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on location 
                                         of tuplet stopper) 
            Data elements:   x<#>  = shift x position of tuplet (units 
                                     are in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0: right --> 
                                       # < 0: left  <-- 
                             y<#>  = shift y position of tuplet (units 
                                     are in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 


       4. Suggestions modifying the printing of note, rest and 
            figure objects 
          Field designator:  C1: 
          Data elements:     x<#>  = shift default x position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  right  --> 
                                       # < 0:  left   <-- 
                             X<#>  = x position relative to primary 
                                     horizontal position of notes (where 
                                     most notes line up) (units are in 
                                     tenths of interline distance) 


                             y<#>  = shift default y position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 
                             Y<#>  = y position relative to staff line.  
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance) 
                             s<#>  = note head shape 
                                       # = 0:  regular (default) 
                                       # = 1:  x note (e.g. cymbal crash) 
                                       # = 2:  normal stem diamond
                                         (up to 15 non-regular types) 
                             p<#>  = printout modifier 
                                       # = 0:  (default) 
                                   no-print suggestions 
                                       # = 1:  leave space, don't print 
                                                 note or dot 
                                       # = 2:  leave space, print only 
                                                 a dot 
                                   suggestions extending note length 
                                       # = 3:  print note, no dot 
                                       # = 4:  print note, add extension 
                                                 dot 
                                       # = 5:  double note length, no dot 
                                       # = 6:  double note length, print 
                                                 dot 
                                       # = 7:  quadruple note length, no 
                                                 dot 
          Note: (1) In certain special cases, an invisible rest (irest) 
                will require the allocation of physical space in order 
                for mskpage to run properly.  This condition is encountered
                in multi-track situations where using an irest creates 
                an isolated time node in a measure.  Use the print 
                suggestion  "P   C1:p1" after the offending irest to 
                allowcate the necessary physical space.  For a "global" 
                method of dealing with this problem, see Section 11: 
                General print suggestions, suggestion r<#>.  
                (2) There is a special case where the allocation of   
                space for an invisible rest will improving the layout 
                of the music.  When there are two instruments on a 
                staff (e.g. oboes 1 and 2), and these parts are 
                isorhythmic, with stems in the same direction so 
                they should be printed as chords, if there is an 
                irest within a set of beamed notes, then the 
                invisible rest (in the second part) should be 
                allowcated space.   Otherwise the parts will not 
                be combined into chords.  
                (3) A third special case has turned up where the  
                allocation of space for an invisible rest will 
                improving the layout of the music.  When there are 
                two instruments on a staff (e.g. oboes 1 and 2), and 
                these parts are isorhythmic, with stems in the same 
                direction so they should be printed as chords, if 
                there are wedges within a set of beam notes, and 
                there is an irest somewhere in the measure, then 
                this invisible rest (in the second part) should be 
                allowcated space.  Otherwise the parts will not be 
                combined into chords.  Note: If the parts are not 
                fully isorhythmic, then wedges boundaries within a 
                set of beamed notes will always prevent these notes
                being combined into chords.  


       5. Suggestions for location of notations attached to notes 
          Field designator:  C18: for extension dots                   
                             C19: for accidentals                           
                             C32: to C43: (depending on column location 
                                       of the notation) 
          Data elements:     x<#>  = shift default x position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  right  --> 
                                       # < 0:  left   <-- 
                             X<#>  = x position relative to note object 
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance) 
                             y<#>  = shift default y position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 
                             Y<#>  = y position relative to note object.  
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance) 
                                     Note: Don't use this with staccato 
                                           and spiccate 
                             L<#>  = (ties only) change end point of a 
                                     tie (+ or -).  (units are in tenths 
                                     of interline distance) 
                             a     = place notation above note object 
                                     (over-ride default) 
                             b     = place notation below note object 
                                     (over-ride default) 
                          Notations for which this works 
                          ------------------------------ 
                    ornaments: turns, trills, shakes, mordents, 
                               wavy lines (trill) 
                articulations: spiccato, staccato, line over dot, legato, 
                               horizontal accent, vertical accents 
                    technical: up bow, down bow, string harmonic, 
                               thumb position, open string, fingerings 
                     dynamics: combinations of letter dynamics 
                        other: fermatas, ties 
                               In the case of ties, the x-shift applies 
                               only to the left end of the tie.  This 
                               can be used to avoid a clash between 
                               extention dots and the tie.  
          Notations for which this feature doesn't work (at the moment) 
          ------------------------------------------------------------- 
            arpeggiated chords, tuplets, ped * 
            (slurs are dealt with below) 


       6. Suggestions for shape and location of slurs 
                                                                      
          Field designator:  C32: to C43: (depending on column location 
                                       of the notation) 
            Case I: Start slur "(", "[", "{", "z" 
              To suppress printing of slur: 
              Data element:     *  = suppress printing of slur.  This is 
                                     used when the slur occurs in conjunction
                                     with a tuple   (New 04/26/05) 
              For location of slur: 
              Data elements: x<#>  = (extra) horizontal displacement 
                                     from associated starting note (units 
                                     are in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  right  --> 
                                       # < 0:  left   <-- 
                                     Length and shape of slur are 
                                     affected.  
                             X<#>  = post adjustment to x-position of slur 
                                     negative = left; positive = right 
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance).  Length and shape of slur 
                                     are not affected.  
                             y<#>  = (extra) vertical displacement from 
                                     associated starting note (unis are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 
                                     Length and shape of slur are 
                                     affected.  
                             Y<#>  = post adjustment to y-position of slur 
                                     negative = up; positive = down 
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance). Length and shape of slur 
                                     are not affected.  
              Note: The suggestion may contain any combination of the four 
                    data elements 


            Case II: End slur ")", "]", "}", "x" 
              Data elements: x<#>  = (extra) horizontal displacement from 
                                     associated ending note (units are in 
                                     tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  right  --> 
                                       # < 0:  left   <-- 
                                     Length and shape of slur are affected.


                             y<#>  = (extra) vertical displacement from 
                                     associated ending note (units are in 
                                     tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 
                                     Length and shape of slur are affected.
                             h<#>  = post adjustment to curvature.  This 
                                     works within limits.  positive = more 
                                     curvature; negative = less curvative.  
                                     Shape is affected, but length should 
                                     not be (if it is, then the value of # 
                                     is out-of-bounds).  


       7. Suggestions for representing beamed notes with repeaters 
          Field designator:  C26: or C27: 
          Data elements:     a     = use repeater for next beam only.  
                             A     = use repeaters for all beams 
                                       which follow.  
                             b     = return to normal beaming 
                                       (used to cancel A) 
                             c     = use repeater for next beam only, and 
                                       add dot to note value.  This varient
                                       of "a" is useful for cases where the
                                       repeater is on a triplet (or some 
                                       multiple of a triplet), and the  
                                       encoder wishes to avoid having to 
                                       display the tuple number.  The 
                                       actual duration of the note for 
                                       spacing purposes is not altered 
                         Note: Print suggestions for beams normally 
                               follow the beginning of beams.  If the 
                               field designator is C26:, this indicates 
                               that the maximum use of repeaters is 
                               desired; if the field designator is 
                               C27:, then the "top" beam should not 
                               be represented as a repeater.  


       8. Suggestion for changing the length of the first stem on 
            beamed notes 
          Field designator:  C26:             
          Data element:      y<#>  = change length of first stem for a 
                                     set of beamed notes, as calculated 
                                     by mskpage or mkpart.  (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  make stem longer 
                                       # < 0:  make stem shorter 
                                     Suggestions apply to up and down 
                                     stems.  
       9. Suggestions for musical directions 
          Field designator:  C17: or C18: (depending on location of 
                                           the musical direction) 
          Data elements:     x<#>  = shift default x position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  right  --> 
                                       # < 0:  left   <-- 
                             X<#>  = x position relative to staff line.  
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance) 
                             y<#>  = shift default y position (units are 
                                     in tenths of interline distance) 
                                       # > 0:  down 
                                       # < 0:  up 
                             Y<#>  = y position relative to staff line.  
                                     (units are in tenths of interline 
                                     distance) 


          Field designator:  C25: and greater (depending on location of 
                                     the font change).  Multiple font 
                                     changes are allowed in the same 
                                     line.  
                             f<#>  = font number for ASCII text in the 
                                     specified column and subsequent 
                                     columns to the right (until a 
                                     new change is encountered).  Used 
                                     with direction types A,B,C,D,G.  
                                     The use of this suggestion will 
                                     remove the need to place the 
                                     font number in the ASCII string 
                                     of the musical direction.  
          Note:  If the code C25:f0 is used, i.e., "set the initial font 
                   to zero,"  this will cause the directive to BLANK, 
                   that is, not to print.   This feature can be used, 
                   for example, to blank directives which  are present 
                   (and needed) in all parts but which in the full 
                   score  are needed only at the bottom.  The print 
                   suggestion in this case  would be: 
                   Ps   C25:f0   --> Apply this suggestion only when 
                                     typesetting the i-files for a score, 
                                     and don't include the directive 
                                     above this suggestion.  


      10. Suggestions for treatment of whole measures 
          Field designator:  C1:                                        
                                                                        
          Suggestion codes:   n     = do not expand the spacings in the 
                                      following measure in the left-edge 
                                      alignment process.  
                              ]     = use system justification to force 
                                      this bar line to the end of a system.
                              f     = breakup a multi-measure rest.  This 
                                      applies only to the typesetting of parts.
                                      If this barline is also to be a system
                                      break, then the suggestion "P  C1:f" 
                                      should come first, followed by the 
                                      suggestion "P  C1:]" 


      11. General print suggestions 
          Field designator:  C0: 
          Suggestion codes:   a<#>  = placement of articulations 
                                        bit 0 set: attach staccato to note head
                                        bit 1 set: attach legato to note head
                                        bit 2 set: attach spiccato to note head
                                        bit 3 set: attach all other articulations to note head
                                        bit 4 set: place staccato and/or legato above note
                                        bit 5 set:   and above the staff lines.
                                        bit 6 set: place spiccato above note   
                                        bit 7 set: place all other articulations above note
                              c<#>  = continuo line   
                                        # = 0: normal operation 
                                        # = 1: blank out rests 
                              d<#>  = default height for time words and 
                                      other musical designations.  
                                      # is measured in scale steps above 
                                      the top line of the staff.  Default 
                                      is 6 scale steps.  
                              f<#>  = default font for musical directions in
                                        "*" records 
                              F<#>  = font for musical directives in "$" records
                              g<#>  = slur adjustment flag 
                                        # = 0: default; automatic adjustment of slur
                                        # = 1: turn off automatic adjustment
                              h<#>  = alter the minimum allowed space between notes
                                        # = percentage of default size (hpar(29))
                                            (100 = default) 
                              j<#>  = option to change stem directions (when using I:2)
                                        # = 0: don't change (default) 
                                        # = 1: set all stems up 
                                        # = 2: set all stems down 
                                        # = 3: change stems where appropriate
                              k<#>  = various operational flags (defaults are 0)

                                        bit 0: (for two or more tracks) 
                                           0 = allow overstrike when there is a dot-difference
                                           1 = do not overstrike        
                                        bit 1: (for printing new key signatures)
                                           0 = don't print a new key signature if it is
                                                 the same as the previous one (default)
                                           1 = always print a key signature 
                                                 even when it hasn't changed
                                        bit 2: (for printing chords with mixed colors)
                                           0 = don't allow mixed colors in chords       
                                                 principle duration color 
                                           1 = allow mixed colors in chords
                                        bit 3: (for suppression of the key signature)
                                           0 = normal 
                                           1 = suppress printing of the key signature
                                                 (for timpani parts, etc.) 
                                        bit 4: (for assigning editorial slurs)
                                           0 = normal (no assignment) 
                                           1 = "{ }" and "z x" combinations 
                                                 indicate editorial slurs 
                                        bit 5: (for printing new clef signs)
                                           0 = normal (large clefs, only at start of measure)
                                           1 = always use large clefs        

                              m<#>  = multi-rest flag    
                                        # = 0: do not generate multi-rests (default for score)
                                        # = 1: generate multi-rests (default for parts)
                              n<#>  = numbering measures 
                                        # = 0: stop numbering measures 
                                        # > 0: start numbering measures 
                                                 with <#> 
                              p<#>  = minimum distance between notes 
                                      (expressed as percent of the 
                                      default).  
                              q<#>  = duration which is assigned the 
                                      minimum distance 
                                        0 = recompute default (from this 
                                              point onward) 
                                        1 = whole notes 
                                       ...   . . .  
                                        8 = eighth notes 
                                       16 = sixteenth notes, etc 
                              r<#>  = rest options flag 
                                        bit 0: placement of rests 
                                           0 = use default placement 
                                           1 = always place on middle line 
                                        bit 1: treatment of irests.  
                                           0 = use irest as a simple "backup" command
                                           1 = treat irest as an "un-printed" rest object
                                        Note: setting this bit serves to globalize the
                                        "C1:p1" print suggustion, used in multi track
                                        situations where an irest is the only member
                                        of a time node.  See note under under section 4:
                                        Suggestions modifying the printing of note, rest
                                        and figure objects.  
                                        bit 2: treatment of irests.  
                                           0 = collapse isorhymic rests in the
                                                 two instrument case (default)
                                           1 = do not collapse isorhythmic rests
                              s<#>  = space between grand staffs measured 
                                      in multiples of leger lines times 10 
                                      (e.g. 100 = 10 leger lines).  
                              t<#>  = global tuplet placement 
                                        # = 0: use default 
                                        # = 1: place tuplet near note 
                                                 heads 
                                        # = 2: place tuplet near note 
                                                 stems (beams) 
                                        # = 3: place all tuplets above 
                                                 notes 
                                        # = 4: place all tuplets below 
                                                 notes 
                              v<#>  = location of text below music 
                                        # = number of scale steps (x 10) 
                                             (default approx. 150) 
                              x<#>  = part inclusion flag 
                                        # = 0: include part in every 
                                                 system (default) 
                                        # = 1: leave part out of system 
                                                 when there are only 
                                                 whole rests in the part 
                              y<#>  = line control flag (type = Y U) 
                                        # = 0: turn all line control 
                                                 tags off (default) 
                                        # = 1: generate a line control 
                                                 (type=Y U) type-1 tag 
                                                 (suppresses dominant 
                                                 representation) 
                                        # = 2: generate a line control 
                                                 (type=Y U) type-2 tag 
                                                 (suppresses non-dominant 
                                                 representation) 
                                 Note: type-y general print suggestions 
                                       are written to the output file by 
                                       AUTOSET as soon as they are 
                                       encountered.  This means that any 
                                       such suggestion encountered during 
                                       the processing of a measure of     
                                       data will be put out at the 
                                       beginning of the measure (i.e., 
                                       immediately following the previous 
                                       bar line.  
                                 Note also: A measure with nothing but a 
                                       whole rest (empty measure) is processsed
                                       somewhat differently by AUTOSET, which
                                       can cause any type-y general print 
                                       suggestions in such a measure to be 
                                       ignored (technically this is a fault
                                       of AUTOSET).  
                              z<#><string> = abbreviated part name flag 
                                        (type= Y P) 
                                        # = font number.  (0 = flag OFF) 
                                        <string> (when # > 0) = the 
                                        abbreviated part name.  Use the 
                                        "_" character to indicate a blank.  
                                        Use the "/" character to indicate 
                                        a second instrument.  
                                        Start with "(g)" if the instrument 
                                        is displayed on the grand staff 
                                 Note: type-z general print suggestions 
                                       are written to the output file by 
                                       AUTOSET as soon as they are 
                                       encountered.  This means that any 
                                       such suggestion encountered during 
                                       the processing of a measure of     
                                       data will be put out at the 
                                       beginning of the measure (i.e., 
                                       immediately following the previous 
                                       bar line.  


Summary of Control codes

    ' ' = extra note in chord 
     $  = controlling musical attributes  
     &  = comment mode toggle switch
     *  = musical directions  
     A  = regular note  
     B  =    "     "  
     C  =    "     "  
     D  =    "     "  
     E  =    "     "  
     F  =    "     "  
     G  =    "     "  
     /  = end of music or end of file
     @  = single line comment
     a  = append to previous line
     b  = backspace in time 
     c  = cue size note 
     f  = figured harmony 
     g  = grace note  
     i  = invisible rest  
     m  = bar line  
     r  = regular rest  
     S  = sound directions 
     P  = print suggestions