Digital Resources for Musicology
This website provides links to substantial open-access projects of use to musicians and musicologists. With a burgeoning number of digital resources available, remembering titles of sites and pathways to them can be difficult. Digital Resources in Musicology (DRM) is organized topically and provides a rapid search tool for specialties within heterogeneous collections. Neither the links nor their descriptions are exhaustive. Older projects predating the development of the internet are listed at ADAM: Archive of Digital Applications in Musicology. Curated digital and hybrid editions are itemized at EVE: Electronic and Virtual Editions. Harvard's Online Resources for Music Scholars offer a somewhat different, largely complementary mix of projects. On placement by category, please see our FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions list).
1 Digitized Music Manuscripts
Digitized collections of unpublished materials. Grouped under these headings: composers, collections, repertories.
1.1 By Composer
1.1.1 Ludwig van Beethoven: Beethoven-Haus, Bonn
Website: Beethoven Haus, Bonn
The digital archive at the Beethoven-Haus, Bonn, contains manuscripts, sketches, letters, pictures, sample sound recordings, and much else. Beethoven lived here, and the physical museum also houses his instrument collection. A recently funded project involving the Beethoven-Haus and the Musikhochschule in Detmold will develop an ambitious "Beethoven Werkstaat" project taking viewers through the development of individual works by way of sketches and editions.
1.1.2 Ludwig van Beethoven: Beethoven Autographs Online
Website: Beethoven Autographs Online
Boston University's Beethoven Center offers several tools for Beethoven scholars and performers. Among them Beethoven Autographs Online is a one-stop shop for rare materials ranging from fragments, sketches, and cadenzas to complete manuscripts of full scores from libraries and private collections across Europe and North America. Its reference system conflates diverse work-numbering schemes into one easily searchable whole.
1.1.3 Beethovens Werkstatt (Beethoven's Workshop)
Website: Beethovens Werkstatt
The ambitious Beethovens Werkstatt project, officially launched in 2014, will between now and 2030 reconstruct (with images and critical notes) the path of development of Beethoven's works from inception to completion. This project is based on the composer's sketch books, which in the digital version are to be carefully annotated with the help of MEI (the Music Encoding Initiative), a markup language for the encoding of musical sources facilitating their citation in critical editions. Bernhard Apel (Beethoven-Haus, Bonn) and Joachim Veit (Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Detmold/Padlerborn) are the project directors. Johannes Kepper (Edirom project) is centrally involved in the technical development of both Werkstatt and MEI. The link above shows a prototype browser for viewing both manuscript iterations and modern notation for variants in the first movement of Beethoven's C-Minor Piano Sonata Op. 111 in Variants 14–17 (Beethoven-Haus BH 71).
1.1.4 Johannes Brahms (Institute)
Website: Johannes Brahms (Institute)
The Brahms Institute in Lübeck hosts a composite site for autographs, early editions, letters, and other kinds of documentation associated with Brahms. In this last category are such things as concert programs and fragments of music, drawings, and photographs of and by his associates.
1.1.5 Anton Bruckner
Website: Web Archive Anton Bruckner
The multi-faceted Anton Brucker web archive at the Austrian Academy of Sciences contains 26,000 images of the composer's autographs and early copies plus 6000 images of early prints. An associated database cites c. 10,000 works and related literature. The project is managed by Robert Klugseder. Online editions prepared with Edirom are in preparation.
1.1.6 John Cage Living Archive
Website: John Cage Living Archive
The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, in collaboration with the John Cage Trust and the publisher C. F. Peters, hosts this sampler of Cage's physically diverse manuscripts. At a glance the reader can see the broad diversity of Cage's approaches--arithmetical, schematic, electronic, and aleatoric. A search engine has filters for video, manuscript, and ephemeral material. Video contributions of performances of Cage's music are actively sought via this form.
1.1.7 The Aaron Copland Collection
Website: The Aaron Copland Collection
The Aaron Copland Collection, available at the Library of Congress, is an exceedingly rich one that contains every imaginable kind of evidence of the composer's long life (1900–1990)—manuscripts, sketches, typescripts for talks, personal photographs (roughly 5,000 of them), childhood mementos, and letters. Apart from photos, 981 other items can be found here.
1.1.8 Edvard Grieg
Website: Material regarding Edvard Grieg
Shortly before his death Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) arranged for the donation of all his music, letters, and related materials to the Bergen Public Library. The origins of the digitization project date back to 1993, the 150th anniversary of Grieg's birth. Grieg had a deep interest in recording technologies of his time. Starting in 1903 he made nine recordings of his music (on 78s), player-piano rolls from live-performance (Ludwig Hupfeld's Phonola and Welte-Mignon), and the Aeolian Company. For the last he suggested tempo mappings.
1.1.9 Handel's Messiah and other virtual "page-turners" from the British Library
Websites: See below.
The British Library's Virtual Books website contains a number of important manuscripts, the folios of which can be "turned" by the user. In addition to the autograph score of Handel's Messiah, "Sumer is icumen in", the Old Hall manuscript, the manuscript for Book II of J. S. Bach's Well Tempered Clavier, a Purcell anthem for the coronation (1685) of James II, sketches for Beethoven's Sixth ("Pastoral") Symphony, Elgar's "Enigma" Variations, and Mozart's musical diary (Zweig MS 63) are set up in similar fashion. A listing of other viewable musical works can be found here.
1.1.10 Handel autographs and other music manuscripts
Website: Handel autographs
The British Library completed the digitization of Handel autograph manuscripts in 2016. They are accessed through the Library's "catalogs, archives, and manuscripts" website, where the user may limit the date range (slider at the bottom of the form). An author search for "Handel autographs" (currently yielding 168 hits) picks up unrelated miscellany, while a search for Handel alone produces a list of 103 titles. Items listed range from definitive scores of myriad operas, oratorios, cantatas, and other vocal and choral works to miscellaneous pieces (especially arias) collected by John Christopher Smith, Handel's copyist.
Among other composers represented, we find 311 manuscripts associated with the Bach family (52). Searches for other composers yield these figures: Thomas Arne (57), Giovanni Bononcini (58), William Boyce (115), William Byrd (141), Joseph Haydn (239), Orlando de Lassus (48), Benedetto Marcello (52), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (297), Pierluigi Palestrina (99), Giovanni Paisiello (84), Henry Purcell (233), and Alessandro Scarlatti (84), Franz Schubert (95), and William Walton (374).
The Handel autographs all have live links (2016), while many other listings currently contain catalog information. Holdings responding to composer searches may also yield correspondence, deeds, and other personal papers.
1.1.11 Michael Haydn Manuscripts
Website: Michael Haydn Manuscripts
181 comprehensive titles from the Bavarian State Library. The heavy emphasis on liturgical music reflects Haydn's lifetime involvement in church music, mainly in Salzburg and Vienna.
1.1.12 Gustav Mahler Autograph Manuscripts
Website: Mahler Autograph Manuscripts
30 volumes of autograph manuscripts by Gustav Mahler are housed in the Bavarian State Library (Munich). Offerings include Das Knaben Wunderhorn, sketches for three symphonies, and Mahler's correspondence with Emil Hertzka.
1.1.13 Felix Mendelssohn Materials (Library of Congress)
Website: Felix Mendelssohn Materials
The Library of Congress holds a collection of miscellaneous Mendelssohn memorabilia that includes letters, lithographs, printed, and manuscript music. The illustration here shows a watercolor of the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, by Mendelssohn from the scrapbook of Henriette Grabau, a singer who appeared there when Mendelssohn conducted in 1836. The musical except beneath it comes from the Cherubini's opera Ali Baba. Manuscripts of the Lieder ohne Wörte and the Octet, as well as drawings from his travels in Italy, are among the holdings.
1.1.14 Carl Orff Autograph Manuscripts
Website: Orff Autograph Manuscripts
This collection of manuscript materials (91 titles) documents the musical career of Carl Orff (1895–1982). It includes, Lieder, stage works, modern arrangements of Monteverdi operas, and other materials. Because of continuing copyright restrictions, many items can be consulted only on site in the Bavarian State Library. Nonetheless the detailed listing is valuable in documenting the range of Orff's interests and activities.
1.1.15 Max Reger Autograph Manuscripts
Website: Reger Autograph Manuscripts
The music of Max Reger (1873–1916) occupies a unique place in the keyboard repertory of its time. His organ works are better known than his other music—concertos, Lieder, choral works, and a clarinet quintet. Forty titles are viewable here.
1.1.16 Cipriano de Rore: Illuminated Choirbook from the Court of Albrecht V
The brilliant colors and generous proportions of this choirbook, illuminated by Hans Mielich (1516-1573) for the Court of Albrecht V of Bavaria are stunning to behold. It is dated 1559. The books includes portraits of the duke, Duchess Anna, and of the composer. Rore (c. 1515-1565) was mainly active in Italy. He moved to Munich from Ferrara in the summer of 1559, which suggests that the bulk of the motets found here were composed prior to his arrival. Two volumes of his motets had been published in Venice in the 1540s. A further one followed in 1563.
1.1.17 The Arnold Schönberg Center
Website: The Arnold Schönberg Center
The Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna holds a cornucopia of Schönberg memorabilia that extends to film footage of the composer's real-world experiences such as being briefly employed as an auto salesman, his "contacts" list, and personal photographs, provides an online list of works, biographical sources, and information on performing rites. Autograph fair copies, sketches and drafts of Schönberg's compositions; autograph manuscripts and other primary sources for Schönberg’s theoretical writings and literary works; writings on musical pedagogy, as well as lectures and teaching materials; early printed copies of Schönberg’s works, including autograph annotations, performance instructions, and revisions; personal documents; Schönberg’s complete library; programs, reviews, posters; photographs and audiovisual documents all form part of the collection.
1.1.18 Schubert Online
Website: Schubert Online
Schubert Online offers combined access to a total of 636 autograph scores, letters, and other documentation on Schubert. Much of the work was facilitated by the Vienna Science and Technology Fund [WWTF or Wiener Wissenschafts-, Forschungs- und Technologiefonds]. Digitized holdings come from Vienna's City Hall [Rathaus], the Austrian National Library, the State Library of Berlin, and the National Library of Norway, with intellectual contributions from the Music and Psychology program in Cologne and the Musicology Institute at the University of Vienna. Full-text search is supported for the letters. Deutsch Numbers are used to identify the manuscripts.
1.1.19 Strauss Online
Website: Strauss Online
The music of three Johanns (father, son, uncle), one Josef, and one Eduard is represented at this website based at the city library of Vienna. More than 300 works are available here. Almost 200 of them are by Johann Strauss the younger, the waltz king. A few sketches, operettas, marches et al. are included. The minor Strausses composed polkas as well as other short instrumental pieces. Eduard's Theorie der Musik from c. 1845-50 can be downloaded here. An online catalogue of the library's printed works is available here.
1.1.20 Richard Strauss
Website: Richard Strauss: Musical Autographs
Among these 84 titles are numerous sketches, fragmentary compositions, and Lieder. The originals are held in the Bavarian State Library.
1.1.21 Verdi Online
Website: Verdi Online
The Verdi Online collaboration hosts diverse materials--libretti, letters, portraits and figurines, bibliography, discography, and large quantites of background information about places and people associated with Giuseppe Verdi.
1.1.22 Georg Josef Vogler Music Manuscripts
Website: Vogler Music Manuscripts
Abbe Vogler (1749–1814) left a substantial collection of manuscripts (75 titles) that includes chamber and sacred music, concertos and symphonies, plus several items that relate to his opera Castor et Pollux.
1.1.23 Richard Wagner: Notebooks, music manuscripts, and correspondence
This collection of unpublished materials from the archive of the Bavarian State Opera brings Wagner's goals and working habits into our midst. Under 170 rubrics it documents the composer's movements, collaborators, and evolving ideas about music and role of music in society. They also give a more rounded view of his range of interests than many published accounts.
1.1.24 Manuscripts of Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
Website: Manuscripts of Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876–1948) followed the path of aspiring students of his time in examining the details of earlier composers' practices. This collection of his manuscripts (175 titles) includes transcriptions of keyboard works by J. S. Bach, sketches of operas, concertos, symphonies, comic operas, a passion, sonatas, string quartets, and other chamber music.
1.2 By Collection
1.2.1 Digital Collections in the Berlin State Library
The 7,348 digitized music items at the Berlin State Library website include manuscripts, prints, libretti, poetic texts for Lieder, and much else. Of interest to Beethoven scholars are the composer's conversation books (1820, 1825, 1826). Other offerings include writings by and about Richard Wagner; music in manuscript by Franz Liszt; letters to Clara Schumann by Brahms (and many others); prints, manuscript, and letters by Mendelssohn; and copious amounts of eighteenth-century music, some of it in nineteenth-century manuscript copies.
1.2.2 Rare Music Manuscripts in the British Library
See the Old Hall manuscript, Purcell's coronation anthem for James II, an excerpt from Handel's Messiah, Bach's autograph for Book Two of the Well-Tempered Clavier, Mozart's thematic catalogue of his composition, Beethoven's sketches for the Sixth Symphony ("Pastoral"), and much else. (Music manscripts make up just one part of the holdings viewable at this portal.)
1.2.3 e-codices: Virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland
In many ways e-codices, the Virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland, is an unsurpassed example of maximal access to fundamental but rarely seen sources. Currently serving almost 1,400 parchments and manuscripts, its online existence began in 2007. Its value to musicology owes partly to a tight coupling between early histories of music and the sources on which these accounts were often based. The digital apparatus is very clearly articulated, and it search by many rubrics is possible. Access to color images of the materials long known only from running-text summaries of them enables users to pose new questions of interpretation. Users can construct new juxtapositions and concatenations of source details in relationships that could not previously be explored. An annotation tool enables users to highlight pertinent findings. e-codices is based on like-named software, which holds the distinction of running equally well on mobile and non-mobile platforms. An author list is available here.
Among its many riches to be found are these rare items:
- Writings of Hucbaldus (840–930) from the Benedictine abbey at Einsiedeln.
1.2.4 Early Keyboard Manuscripts at Yale
Website: Early Keyboard Manuscripts at Yale
The Beinecke Library at Yale University holds substantial collections of music manuscripts, not all of it digitized to date. Highlights include not only notebooks for members of the Bach family but also chorale settings, manuscripts by Alessandro Scarlatti, seventeenth-century English music for instrumental ensembles, and transcriptions by Ezra Pound. The Orbis catalogue linked includes a wide range of items.
1.2.5 Integrated Database for Early Music (IDEM)
The Integrated Database for Early Music (IDEM), seated in the Musicology Research Unit (Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven), is an interdisciplinary, multifaceted database of manuscripts and printed books. Under the auspices of the Alamire Foundation, an international center for the study of music in the Low Countries, IDEM focuses on the musical heritage of these countries from the early Middle Ages until 1800.
The IDEM collection of digital images is coordinated with a central database of primary sources. Images are digitized by the Alamire Digital Lab, which provides high-technology photography at its Centre in Leuven, where state-of-the-art equipment allows musical sources to be photographed following strict quality requirements.
1.2.6 The Juilliard Manuscript Collection
Website: The Juilliard Manuscript Collection
Among its 221 music manuscripts posted online, the Juilliard School possesses many unexpected items and substantial coverage of twentieth-century British and American composers (Samuel Barber, Frank Bridge) and many European composers whose music was popular in the US. Other collections represented at Juilliard include the collections of pianist Arthur Rubinstein and the popular composer of musicals Meredith Wilson (1902–1984).
1.2.7 Music Gifts for the Russian Emperors
Website: Music Gifts for the Russian Emperors
The National Library of Russia has made available this carefully curated collection of music given to Romanov emperors by visitors from France, Italy, Germany, and elsewhere. Many holdings come from Russia, where Western European music was introduced early in the eighteenth century. Holdings come from the 18th–20th centuries. Some of the music was brought by foreign teachers (e.g., Vincenzo Manfredini) for the royal progeny. Many works were provided with dedications to the emperors. Czech and Austrian music flowed copiously into Moscow at the end of the eighteenth century. A "Festival Song" by Felix Mendelssohn has a particularly interesting history, which is related here. The digitized pieces are linked to a database containing information about the social context and pertinent musical detail. The list of manuscripts (using Cyrillic script) can be found here, while a search engine (Roman script) is here. Drop-down lists contain listing in both Cyrillic and Roman, as appropriate, while the popup keyboard facilitates Cyrillic input. Source descriptions are in Russian.
1.2.8 Music Manuscripts in the Bavarian State Library
This rich collection of 2,697 digitized manuscripts is well endowed with music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Sample holdings include Alessandro Scarlatti's Missa Clementina, Antonio Caldara's sacred cantata "Gesu Cristo condannato", sacred vocal music by Michael Haydn, Handel's Deidamia, works by Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Dallapiccola, stage works by Richard Strauss, manuscripts of Carl Orff, and much other music.
1.2.9 Handrit: Historical (Music) Manuscripts from Iceland
Website: Historical (Music) Manuscripts from Iceland This collection from the National and University Library, Reykjavik, contains historical manuscripts from Iceland. To find music, select Browse, Keywords, Arts, Music. Sources range from the 15th through 19th centuries.
1.2.10 Index to Opera and Ballet Scores Online
This database maintained at Brigham Young University aggregates links to a wide range of materials related to opera, ballet, and related genres. Scores, libretti, and other information related to these genres are usually available from linked third-party sites. Extensive metadata facilitates focused searches.
1.2.11 The Moldenhauer Archives (Contemporary Music in Manuscript)
Website: The Moldenhauer Archives
The Moldenhauer Archives began with the focus of teaching music history through primary sources. Its founder was Hans Moldenhauer (1906-1987) made the collection a memorial after his wife, Rosaleen, and donated it to the Library of Congress and eight other libraries including the Paul Sacher Stiftung (Basel), others in Cambridge MA, Evanston IL, Munich, Vienna, Zurich, and two in the state of Washington with which the Moldenhauers had personal connections--Washington State University and Whitworth College in Spokane. Its 3,500 manuscripts and letters, while representing a history of music and musical notation from ancient to recent times, is particularly valuable for its autographs of the latter. An online guide documents its contents, in many cases with essays on individual holdings.
1.2.12 Music Manuscripts in the Marciana Library
The "library of St. Mark" (i.e. the Biblioteca Nazionale "Marciana" in Venice) holds acquisitions that have been accumulating since the sixteenth century. Following guidelines widely shared across music libraries in Italy, it has digitized music manuscripts that are most closely tied to Venice's musical history. These include many important sources for seventeenth-century Venetian opera (Francesco Cavalli, Domenico Freschi, Giovanni Legrenzi, Carlo Pallavicino, P.A. and M.A. Ziani (operas can be accessed by act); 66 volumes containing cantatas of the eighteenth century by Benedetto Marcello (471 titles) and his nemesis Antonio Lotti; minuets by Baldassare Galuppi; and all the keyboard sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti (358 titles).
1.2.13 Music Manuscripts Online
Website: Music Manuscripts Online
This collection of more than 700 manuscripts at the Morgan Library (New York) comes chiefly from eighteenth- to early twentieth-century composers (including but not limited to J. S. Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Cherubini, Chopin, Debussy, Fauré, Gershwin, Glinka, Gluck, Handel, Haydn, Herbert, Liszt, Mahler, Massenet, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Mozart, Mussorgsky, Paër, Pergolesi, Puccini, Saint-Saëns, Schubert, Schumann, and Wagner). An integrated browsing tool takes the viewer through music prints and manuscripts.
1.2.14 ORFEUS: The Post-Tridentine Music of Silence in the Cloister of S. Bento de Castris, Evora
Thirteen choirbooks from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in the monastery of S. Bento de Castris, Evora (Portugal), have been digitized by CIDEHUS, the Interdisciplinary Centre for History, Culture, and Societies. Luis Hennriques directs the project. The choirbooks are described individually here.
1.2.15 Music Treasures Consortium
Website: Music Treasures Consortium
This aggregation includes both manuscript and out-of-copyright printed sources in more than a dozen institutions in the US, UK, and Germany. The browsing pages links users to the individual collections. The material is highly diverse but comes principally from the nineteenth century.
Polona presents the digital collections of the National Library of Poland. Digitized manuscripts and printed music are available. Registered website users can save materials to their own collections. Printed music can be found under Biblioteka, then Nuty. Manuscripts can be found under Biblioteka, then Rękopisy; from there, go to the filters and select Gatunek, then rękopisy muzyczne. Filters are available for authors, publishers, languages, form/genres, keywords, and century.
1.2.17 Saxon State Library (SLUB), Dresden: Royal Private Music Collection
This rich collection of the Wettin court, starting from the time of August the Strong and continuing to 1896, when it was donated to the Royal Library, is rich in holdings of sacred vocal music and Italian opera. Today it resides in the Saxon State and University Library (SLUB in the German ordering). The online holdings have been subdivided into these components:
The Opera Archive, which includes libretti, scores, and extracts, is currently being digitized. It overlaps the collaborative project Opera in Italy and Germany (1770-1830). This collection contains roughly 650 operas and opera extracts from the years 1764 to 1900. The private collections of court and church music include 750 manuscripts from the years 1697-1763.
1.2.18 Saxon State Library (SLUB), Dresden: Schrank II
Website: Court Music in Dresden
The current familiar name of this collection, Schrank II, owes to the designation for the cabinet in which it was long stored. It is a rich collection of instrumental music, mainly from the eighteenth century. Much of it is in the hand of Johann Georg Pisendel, an intrepid collector of Italian instrumental pieces, particularly from Venice. It contains 1795 listings in 1750 physical manuscripts. Copies of Italian instrumental music of the early eighteenth-century are especially numerous. By clicking on the highlighted text in the first sentence of the description users can download a spreadsheet with a full listing of holdings, most of which are digitized and are also accessible from the RISM OPAC.
1.2.19 Slovenian Digital Library
Website: Slovenian Digital Library
The Digital Library of Slovenia includes in its Pictures section scans of music (and articles about music) published in Slovenia. Select notno gravido from the left frame on the Pictures tab. Dates of sheet-music publication range from 1862 to 1930, with a strong concentration in the late 1920s. Songbooks, especially from the first decade of the twentieth century, are also numerous.
1.2.20 Spanish Digital Library (Biblioteca Nacional Hispanica)
This heterogeneous collection of digitized materials--26,788 manuscripts and 4,347 printed sources--is impressive in its chronological and cultural range. Contains some eighteenth-century music for strings (Boccherini, Sacchini, et al.) and many sources from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
1.3 By Repertory
1.3.1 Cantigas Medievais Galego-Portuguesas
Website: Medieval Cantigas
This website provides links to collections of manuscripts containing cantigas of Gallic and Portuguese origin. Many are preserved in the Vatican Library. The contents of each source is indexed, with full texts given in many cases. A sample folio is shown for each source.
1.3.2 Cambridge Lute Books
Website: Cambridge Lute Books
This link takes you to the second of four lute books compiled by Mathew Holmes and preserved in the Cambridge University Library. Its companions are the Cosens Lute Book and a volume of fragments of Elizabethan music for lute. Holmes was a singer at Christ Church, Oxford, and at Westminster Abbey. Cosens was a nineteenth-century owner of this collection of sixteenth-century music.
1.3.3 Musica restaurata
Website: Musica restaurata
Illuminated manuscripts associated with the Low Countries in the Vatican Library can be viewed in high resolution owing to the generous support of the Alamire Foundation (Leuven, Belgium). The contents at the end of 2012 totaled 13,500 images. The image shown here comes from the workshop of Pierre Alamire (c. 1470–1536). Alamire's workshop produced many important manuscripts of the music of Johannes Ockeghem, Josquin des Prez, Adriano Willaert, and Pierre de la Rue. Alamire was a vendor of manuscripts who also used his innocent musical pursuits to conceal his operations as a spy for King Henry VIII. Manuscripts from his workshop can be found in several other European venues including Munich, Vienna, Brussels.
1.3.4 Polish Benedictine Music
Website: Polish Benedictine Music
This multifaceted project provides digitized images of sacred and liturgical music from Benedictine convents in the environs of Krakov. The musical sources are primarily from the 16th and 17th centuries. In addition to searchable digitized images, it also contains considerable metadata and many links to related resources as well as analytical information. An English translation is in progress.
1.3.5 Scottish Fiddle Tunes (Collections)
Website: Scottish Fiddle Tunes (Collections)
More than 200 books of airs, reels, hornpipes, and strathspeys are reproduced at this website at the University of Glascow. Search by title, genre etc is facilitated in an associated databse. Some sources contain period annotations. The bulk are notated on two staves in the manner of keyboard music.
1.3.6 Swedish Musical Heritage
Website: Swedish Musical Heritage
The Swedish Musical Heritage website represents an ongoing collaboration to make available all out-of-copyright music by Swedish composers. The alphabetical database of holdings is easily searched. It provides filters for instrumentation, composer's gender, century, and duration of each recording. Materials served include reproductions of scores, recordings of radio broadcasts, biographical information, and other related holdings of several musical institutions. Many Swedes were employed abroad, especially in Germany, and much foreign music found its way to Sweden via Germany.
2 Digital Score Reprints
Out-of-copyright editions reproduced in their entirety. Grouped under these headings: composers, collections (i.e. within a library or a series), and sheet music (subjects variable, usually from one institution). Within each category listings are alphabetical.
2.1 By Composer
2.1.1 Ludwig van Beethoven
Website: Ludwig van Beethovens Werke
The first collected edition of Beethoven's music was published by Breitkopf & Härtel, in Leipzig, between 1862 and 1888. This set contains 269 titles—symphonies, concertos, chamber music, Lieder, folksong arrangements, and much more.
2.1.2 Johannes Brahms
Website: Johannes Brahms: Digital Archive
This website of the Brahms Institute in Lübeck (Germany) currently (2016) contains 42,000 images spreading across autograph manuscripts, early prints, photographs, concert programs, and personal documentation.
2.1.3 Chopin's First Editions Online
Website: Chopin First Editions Online (CFEO)
This composite website, based at Royal Holloway College, London, serves more than 5,500 page images of early editions of Chopin's music. The project is headed by John Rink, with the collaboration of numerous holding institutions including the Bibliiothèque Nationale de France (Paris), the Bodleian Library (Oxford), the British Library (London), the University of Chicago, and the Chopin Institute (Warsaw). The separate listings below also function independently. The aim of the umbrella site is to facilitate close examination of sources in diverse collections and to coordinate early prints of Chopin's music with the Annotated Catalogue of Chopin's First Editions.
126.96.36.199 Chopin Editions in Poland
Featuring 17 volumes of Chopin's piano music at Jagiellonian Library in Kraków. The sites are under development.
188.8.131.52 Chopin Early Editions
Website: Chopin Early Editions
For an easy-to-consult listing of printed music by Chopin in the University of Chicago library, it is hard to surpass the Chopin Online Chopin Online Catalog. Citations are based on the library's shelfmarks, but since the music is digitized, users will have no difficulty in locating what they seek.
184.108.40.206 Online Chopin Variorum Edition
Website: Online Chopin Variorum Editions
Not so much a single project as a whole constellation of Chopin-related research projects, John Rink's Chopin Variorum investigates such things as the work concept in Chopin's time and provides an annotated catalogue of first editions. Both are coordinated with The Complete Chopin: A New Critical Edition, printed in London (2004).
2.1.4 Georg Frideric Handel
Website: Georg Friedrich Händels Werke
The Handel Gesellschaft edition of the composer's works (105 titles) was published by Breitkopf & Härtel between 1885 and 1902. It contains all but a few of the major works known today, sometimes with variants of arias or choruses that were excluded in later editions. [For earlier sources see "Lully" below.]
2.1.5 Franz Liszt
Website: Franz Liszt Musikalische Werke
This collected edition of Franz Liszt's works (35 volumes) was published by Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig. Although the first volume appeared in 1870, the others appeared between 1900 and 1936. Symphonies, symphonic poems, works for piano and orchestra, Liszt's music criticism, and little-known arrangements are included. The picture at the left shows Liszt's residence from 1848 to 1861, while he was director of court music. Today the Liszt Haus serves as a museum.
2.1.6 Jean-Baptiste Lully
Website: Jean-Baptiste Lully Collection
Twenty-six scores of Lully's best-known dramatic settings are preserved in the music collection of the University of North Texas (Denton TX). Together with arrangements and variants of works by Lully in the 182 holdings of the Virtual Rare Book Room a broad basis for study of Lully's milieu is available here. Dates of works in the broader collection extend to late in the nineteenth century. Among holdings that fall outside this description are a 1743 print of Handel's Alexander's Feast, the first printed edition (1767) of Handel's Messiah, the first version of George Grove's 4-volume Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London, 1879–90, and Girolamo Gigli's original libretto (1689) for an opera called La fede ne' tradimenti, which enjoyed many settings in Italy.
2.1.7 Felix Mendelssohn
Website: Felix Mendelssohn Bartoldys Werke
This collected edition (162 titles) of Mendelssohn's music was issued by Breitkopf & Härtel. String quartets, quintets, chamber music for clarinet and basset horn, piano trios, works for piano and cello, a fantasy on the Irish song "The last rose of summer" (Op. 15) and many other little-known pieces of chamber music can be found here together with more familiar fare.
2.1.8 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Website: Neue Mozart Ausgabe (NMA) Online
A fully digitized version of the Neue Mozart Ausgabe has been available online since 2006. Series and volumes follow exactly the Bärenreiter print. All elements of the printed exemplars (table of contents, score, critical report) are present. Letters, documents, and libretti will be added by the Digital Mozart Edition at the Mozarteum, Salzburg, in cooperation with the Packard Humanities Institute. This is the only recent collected edition of the works by a major composer currently offered online.
2.1.9 Ignaz Pleyel Early Editions
Website: Ignaz Pleyel Early Editions
The late musicologist Rita Benton made an exhaustive study of Pleyel's editions (c. 1800) of the early string quartet literature. In the library named after her, more than 200 early editions and manuscripts give some sense of the scope of Pleyel's career as both a composer and a music publisher in the era of Haydn, Boccherini, and other notable composers of chamber music. In editions of chamber music for strings Pleyel also brought out piano pedagogy books and piano trios.
2.1.10 Franz Schubert
Website: Franz Schuberts Werke
The collected works of Franz Schubert, as published by Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, 1884-1892. 53 volumes, including symphonic and piano works, choral works, theater pieces, piano four-hands arrangements, and song cycles.
2.1.11 Robert Schumann
Website: Robert Schumanns Werke
The works as edited by Clara Schumann and others. This series was published in Leipzig by Breitkoft & Härtrel between 1881 and 1893. The illustration shows the start of "Die Minnesänger" for four male voices, No. 2 from Schumann's Sechs Lieder.
2.1.12 Tomás Luis de Victoria
Website: Tomás Luis de Victoria
The Centro d' Estusios Tomás Luis de Victoria (CEV) is a comprehensive one aimed at promoting greater familiarity with the music of the noted Spanish composer (1548-1611). To this end it offers a catalog and numerous reprints together with notices of events, podcasts, and a biography of the composer. Its website is optimized for mobile access (via smartphones and tablets).
The bibliographical apparatus is very clearly organized, and the CEV's integration of its diverse resources is a model of sensible organization. Since nearly all of Victoria's music is sacred vocal, the liturgical positioning of individual works is indicated. Links to texts, translations, and sources are fully covered. Some modern editions are credited to CPDL and IMSLP (in most cases relying on Pedrell's edition (Thomae Ludovici Victoria Abulensis Opera omnia), Leipzig 1902–13), while others are newly edited. It has links for discussion forums, facsimiles, monographs, and a discograhy.
Victoria entered musical life as a chorister in Ávila Cathedral, received his formal education and early professional experience in Rome, and upon his return to Spain (1577) entered the service of Dowager Empress Maria of Austria (daughter of Charles V, wife of Maximilian II, and mother of two other emperors) in Madrid. A priest, Victoria preferred convent life and declined several invitations to assume a more conspicuous post. His works consist mainly of masses (including parodies), motets (some sorrowful), Magnificats, Lamentations for Holy Week, and other species of liturgical music. Their performance attracted many listeners to the empress's convent.
2.2 By Collection
2.2.1 Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst, 1st series
Website: Monuments of German Music, Series 1
This 53-volume anthology of German music of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries greatly increased familiarity with the music of Buxtehude, Telemann, J. Ch. F. Bach, Melchior Franck, Hasse, Scheidt, Stoltzer, and many others.
2.2.2 Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst, 2nd series (Bavaria)
Website: Monuments of German Music, Series 2
The second series of this well-known anthology, focused on Bavaria, emphasizes music associated with the Bavarian courts resident in Munich and (through composers such as Dell'Abaco) in exile in Brussels. Also represented are Stamitz, Haßler, Pachelbel, Pez, Steffani, Toeschi, and others. Published in 36 volumes (1901–1926).
2.2.3 Duben Collection Database Search
Website: Duben Collection Database Search
The Düben Collection Database Catalogue is a digitised catalogue presenting meta-data and scanned facsimiles of the Düben Collection, a large and important collection of musical manuscripts and prints from the 17th and early 18th centuries. The compilation of the catalogue was initiated in 1987 and is a collaboration between Uppsala University and the University of Rochester.
2.2.4 Eastman School of Music/Sibley Music Library
Website: Sibley Music Library (U. Rochester)
The constantly growing digital collection of the Sibley School of Music is heterogeneous. It includes printed scores, manuscripts, and books—all of them in the public domain under U.S. copyright law. A large percentage of its holdings (currently 22,500 items) come from 19th- and early 20th-century America. Many items are unique.
2.2.5 Gaspari Online (Bologna Conservatory)
The Gaspari Catalogue of holdings in the Bologna Conservatory is a resource well known to students of Italian music. It describes the heterogeneous holdings of what is now formally called the Museo Internazionale e Biblioteca della Musica di Bologna (the International Museum and Music Library of Bologna). Composed of multiple underlying libraries and collections, its holdings range from early liturgical sources to music of the twentieth century, from correspondence to musical instruments from earlier centuries to 4,000+ opera libretti (the Corago Project), most searchable from this start site. Under the same umbrella one can also find c. 400 portraits of musicians, mainly from nineteenth-century lithographs (as with Maria Malibran, shown at the right) and the voluminous eighteenth-century correspondence of Giambattista Martini, also edited in book form by Anne Schnoebelen.
2.2.6 Printed Music in the Bavarian State Library
This collection of 3,379 titles includes a large number of works from the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Krebs, Türk, Danzi, Mendelssohn, and others). It also holds impressive early printed music, including Pierre Attaignant's seminal collection of Trente e six chansons musicales (1530), use of which is restricted to study. Clemens non Papa, Croce, Lassus, Rore, Vecchi, Wert, and Willaert are much in evidence, as are the publications of Pierre Phalèse the Elder.
2.2.7 Printed Music in the Prussian State Library
Among its treasures, the Prussian State Library in Berlin has recently uploaded (2016) 8,445 digital reprints covering a wide array of musical genres. Some obvious categories are music theory (including obscure tutors on harmony and counterpoint), folk music circulating in earlier centuries, musical dictionaries, comic operas, , hymns, psalm settings, spiritual songs, and a vast number of letters by composers. Our illustration shows one from Brahms, writing in Baden, to Clara Schumann, 15 August 1864. The exchange starts in 1855 and continues into the early 1890s. The date range is from the early sixteenth century to the early twentieth.
2.3 Sheet Music Collections and Miscellanies
Sheet music denotes single pieces of music that were published prolifically in the US in parallel with the rise of the recording industry. Most items are for piano and voices. Many large collections survive in university libraries, and among them several are fully digitized. Redundancies in single-title listings are common, but in general each collection represents nearby publishers disproportionately. Many additional resources are listed here. A comprehensive search across several of these collections is available from the Sheet Music Consortium.
2.3.1 African American Sheet Music
Website: African American Sheet Music
The browsing facility for Brown University's online collection (1454 titles) is very easy to use. Some of the material (e.g. "Music Theater, 1865–1910) is also accessible at the Library of Congress "American Memory" website. Some uses are restricted.
2.3.2 American Sacred Music
Website: American Sacred Music
This collection of digitized hymnals from the Mills College Music Library recalls the college's origins in 1851, on the heels of the California Gold Rush. The dates of the publications extend from 1833 to 1917.
2.3.3 American Vernacular Music Manuscripts
Murfreesboro, TN, the home of what is now called Middle Tennessee University, was a nexus of popular music-making before jazz established itself in Nashville. This collection of manuscript resources (c. 1730–1910) is full of miscellany but also offers documentation not available anywhere else. For most users the archive.org link given above will be more accessible than the university's Center for Popular Music server. To date 333 shelfmarks (many of them collections) have been uploaded. George Allen's "Reels, Clogs, Hornpipes, Jigs" is representative.
2.3.4 Archive of Popular American Music
Website: Archive of Popular American Music
UCLA's stupendous collection of popular music (450,000 items) is searchable by name, title, date, and cover art subject and several other categories of information. Covers only are scanned.
2.3.5 The Drs. Whitby Music Collection
Website: The Drs Whitby Music Collection
This Canadian collection (1,339 items) at the University of Western Ontario (Waterloo) consists mainly of instrumental music from the nineteenth century. Titles in music theory and pedagogy are abundant. Some unusual anthologies including George Bickham's Musical Entertainer (1740), a collection of arias with obbligato flute parts, are found among its eighteenth-century holdings.
2.3.6 Historic American Sheet Music
Website: Historic American Sheet Music (HASM)
Duke University's Historic American Sheet Music collection (3,000+ titles) spans the time-period 1850–1920. It includes a song-lyrics index, has tabbed browsing, and provides helpful background on the sheet-music printing industry in the US. HASM is also linked to the Library of Congress's American Memory project. It has particular value for matching references in early film music, ragtime, and piano-rolls, that is for repertories that were known principally by ear. Searchable by subject, instrumentation, and illustrator as well as more usual parameters.
2.3.7 Irish Sheet Music Archives
Website: Irish Sheet Music Archives
The Irish Sheet Music Archives website is the home of the online sheet music collections found in the Ward Irish Music Archives located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It enables searching, viewing, and in the majority of cases downloading its more than 5,000 scores of Irish and Irish-American sheet music. Those wishing to locate scores in the public domain (and therefore downloadable) are best off starting here, where the copyright status, instrumentation, and other details are clearly shown. Specialty subsections contain songs by George M. Cohan (1878-1942) and Harry Lauder (1870-1950), bagpipe pieces arranged for piano, and songs from the first world war.
2.3.8 Lester Levy Sheet Music Collection
Website: Levy Sheet Music Collection
The Lester S. Levy Sheet Music Collection, based at Johns Hopkins University, contains 29,000 pieces (1780–1980). It is rich in popular music from the nineteenth century, particularly surrounding the years of military conflicts—the war of 1812, the Civil War (1861-65), and the First World War (1914–18). The collector wrote several books on specific subjects within the collection.
2.3.9 Lilly Library Sheet Music Collections
These collections at Indiana University are very large. Collectively they hold more than 275,000 pieces of American sheet music. Available materials can be searched with the In Harmony search page.
2.3.10 Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music 1870-85
Website: American Sheet Music 1870-85
This Library of Congress collection comes from copyright registrations. It is complemented by sheet-music repertories for the years 1820–1860 and the Civil War years that immediately followed.
Website: Netherlands Radio Music Library
This treasury of the Netherlands Radio Music Library in Hilversum contains nearly 5000 scores of classical, choral, light, and popular music (including manuscripts). Users can download and print PDF files from the Flash window. They are invited to upload their own sound recordings of the music they downloaded. Most "classical" works are by Dutch composers, and some are arrangements of scores originating elsewhere. Popular sheet music is chiefly from the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries. Since the search pages are only in Dutch, a good starting point is the composer index.
2.3.12 Nineteenth-Century American Sheet Music
This University of North Carolina website holds almost 7500 digitized pieces from 1815 (music from the opera The Devil's Bridge to 1945 (an edition of Chopin's Polonaise Op. 53) as well as letters pertinent to holdings. The online catalogue search offers many options. Holdings include songs with piano accompaniment to duets, trios, and four-part glees.
2.3.13 Nineteenth-Century California Sheet Music
Website: 19th-Century California Sheet Music
The original holdings consisted of 2700 pieces published in California between 1852 and 1900. A further collection of 700 pieces was added in 2007. The project is maintained at the University of California, Berkeley. The pieces represent a wide range of Western US and native American traditions. Some sound, video, and MIDI files are also available.
2.3.14 St. Petersburg Score Collection
Website: St. Petersburg Score Collection
This collection located in St. Petersburg is maintained by the American Society for Jewish Music. Many published titles are in German and Russian. Publication took place in Kiev, New York, and several places between them.
2.3.15 University of North Carolina (UNC)
Website: University of North Carolina (UNC)
The UNC collection (3000+ items) represents categories of popular and religious music in use in the South Central US between 1880 and 1920. In addition, excerpts and short scores for operatic material and pedagogical material make up almost half the holdings. Robert Planquette's three-act comic opera Les Cloches de Corneville is currently the most viewed item. Beyond scans, this recourse offers 10 other download formats including epub, Kindle, Daisy (for print-disabled users), and many more.
2.3.16 What's the Score?
Website: What's the Score?
This in-progress collaboration between the Bodleian Library (Oxford University) and Google was set up in or before 2012. It's aim was to use crowd-sourcing to produce metadata for a collection of 3,641 sheet-music scores (1860–1880). The number of pages scanned is about 40,000. Volunteers are still sought.
2.3.17 University of Toronto Music Faculty Collection
The University of Toronto Music Faculty digitization project makes available more than 4,500 items reflecting, overall, the distribution of topical interests relating to music in Canada. The collection is evenly divided between sheet music and now-rare books. The pedagogical emphasis is pronounced. One of the most heavily used items is Theodore F. Freylinghuysen's Tonic Sol-Fa Music Reader (1890), published under his pseudonym Seward.
2.3.18 World War I Sheet Music
Website: World War I Sheet Music
This collection at the Library of Congress contains almost 14,000 items, all of which are fully digitized. The materials include not only conventional prints but also privately published and unpublished (amateur) material.
2.3.19 Yiddish Sheet Music
Website: Yiddish Sheet Music
This special collection at Brown University contains roughly 2,000 items. Much of it represents the Yiddish-language musical stage in Russia around around 1900. Holdings include works by Bores Thomashefsky, the grandfather of Michael Tilson Thomas.
3 Repertory- and Genre-Based Projects
Repertory- and genre-based projects are difficult to classify. They may integrate highly diverse materials into the study of a single subject. Currently listed: digitized sources for chant, part- and choir-books, and opera.
3.1 Instrument-specific Collections
3.1.1 The International Harp Archives
Website: The International Harp Archives
The International Harp Archives at Brigham Young University contains more than 3,000 items consisting of original works, arrangements, and ensemble music involving the harp. Some titles belong to classical pieces popular a century ago, pedagogical material, music from the British Commonwealth and the United Kingdom, and children's songs.
3.2 Liturgical Music
3.2.1 Global Chant Database: See Search Engines
3.2.2 Brazilian Sacred Music (Mariana Museum of Music)
The multi-faceted website of the Mariana Museum of Music concentrates on three sacred repertories (music for Pentecost, Mass, and Holy Saturday)used in Brazil from colonial times into the twentieth century. Its heterogeneous holdings include printed scores, manuscripts, and recordings. Works are findable by many rubrics in the database section. Some explanatory information is available in Word and PDF formats here. As the online materials explain, much of the sacred music of earlier times has not been preserved because of signal historical events (e.g. the route of the Jesuit order in 1759, the vulgarization of mass texts by the Vatican II Council in the 1960s). A major part of the project involves restoration of poorly preserved materials.
3.2.3 Liber Usualis
Website: Liber Usualis
The Liber Usualis is the practical guide to chants for the Christian liturgical year. Although often considered to be ancient, it was first published in its present form in the middle of the nineteenth century. Some further accretions have occurred in recent decades. The Liber contains two cycles for the Christian year: one for the Ordinary (feasts whose liturgical needs are held in common) and one for the Proper of the Saints (feasts that are individualized in their liturgical requirements). Texts (in Latin) and music were widely paraphrased in liturgical music of the Renaissance. This version is searchable.
3.2.4 The Sarum Rite
Website: The Sarum Rite
This multifaceted website developed by William Renwick under the aegis of the Gregorian Institute of Canada provides both academic and performing editions of texts and music associated with the Sarum Rite. Its contents have been collected from medieval manuscripts and numerous printed books of the 16th and early 17th centuries. (The Rite was replaced by the English Book of Common Prayer under Elizabeth I.) Texts in Latin are available in English translation. Sound files are linked to individual links in the index to each Office. Metadata associated with these materials is available at a separate site at McMaster University.
Sequentia is an online database of ecclesiastic chant during the early modern era (from the beginning of the Counter-Reformation until around 1840–1850). It involves scholars from three French research organizations and is steered by an international group of scholars. Sequentia offers a summary description of liturgical books and a thesaurus of liturgical feasts, but also some details that have not yet been developed in existing databases of liturgical chant. among its long-term aims is the full description of musical pieces contained in the sources, comprising text incipit, possible textual authorship, musical incipit or psalmodic formula, possible melodic authorship, mode and ambitus, possible author of the melody, location within the liturgy (feast, office, rubric), genre, and location within the source.
3.3 Part-books and Choir Books
3.3.1 Early Music (Anthologies) Online
Website: Early Music Online
These 327 printed anthologies, held in the British Library (London), were originally microfilmed for the RISM AI project. Because of its heavy coverage of sixteenth-century prints (a high proportion of which were anthologies), it contains many real treasures—large numbers of madrigals, much of the early printed music for lute, and numerous prints in which almost all the works are by an important composer (Buus, Croce, Rore, Willaert). Seventy-seven volumes contain chansons. A smattering of treatises, e.g. Girolamo Diruta's Il Transilvano, can also be found here.
3.3.2 Bologna Partbooks (secular music)
Website: Bologna Partbooks
The holdings of the Museo internazionale e biblioteca della musica (formerly the Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale) of Bologna are particularly rich in partbooks of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Among the 339 prints found here (served by the same library but originating in the Dipartimento di Musica e Spettacolo of the University of Bologna) many secular items and some sacred vocal music can be found.
3.3.3 German chant and choir books
Website: German chant and choir books
This website serves mainly south German liturgical resources from the fifteenth century. It currently holds more than 200 items.
3.3.4 Munich Choir Books (mainly 16th century)
Website: Munich Choir Books
Under the musical direction of Lassus  the Bavarian court (Munich) reached a peak of activity much of which resulted in the development of a substantial collection of choir books. The layout of parts in a large-format choir book enables singers to see their parts while standing around the book. The origins of this tradition can be traced to c. 1400. The 199 choir books in this digitized collection contain sacred (Isaac, Josquin, Senfl) and secular music as well as fragmentary works and an anonymous Tractatus de musica. Holdings from local monasteries and private collections have been included.
3.3.5 Printed Polyphonic Works of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Similar to Early Music Online, but representing printed music in the Bavarian State Library and not limited to anthologies. It emphasizes music for voices. 1371 publication titles can be found. These include numerous early collections of chansons, madrigals, psalms, masses, motets, hymns, sacred songs, and early instrumental music (sonatas, balletti et al.). Titles in Latin, German, French, Italian, Spanish et al. Some items are of foreign origin (e.g. Purcell's Orpheus Brittanicus (London, 1698), Schmelzer's Arie per il balletto a cavallo (a horse ballet given for the wedding of emperor Leopold I and Princess Margherita of Spain, Vienna, 1667).
3.3.6 Tudor Partbooks
Website: Tudor Partbooks
This collaboration between the Universities of Oxford and Newcastle (funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council) aims to restore and make available online all extant manuscripts of Tudor polyphonic music from c.1510-1590 preserved in partbook format. Its particular focus is on the manuscript copies (and their legacies) of John Sadler (1513-c. 1591/2), John Baldwin (1560-1615), and their predecessors. Researchers from Oxford (Kathryn Butler, Julia Craig-McFeely) and Newcastle (Magnus Williamson, Daisy Gibbs) will rely on contributions from volunteers to help develop the virtual resources. Technical challenges include Tudor reliance on high-acid inks and their detrimental effects on physical preservation of their copies. Digital tools are employed to restore lost elements of the physical sources. A principal [Christ Church Oxford] source of the Baldwin partbooks is described in DIAMM, with further details in the Christ Church overview. Music by William Byrd and Thomas Tallis figure prominently in the holdings. Sample modern editions made from the partbooks are available online.
3.3.7 The Trent Codices (Fifteenth-Century Polyphony)
Website: The Trent Codices
This important collection of anonymous music of the fifteenth century is quite uniform in presentation, with most works employing a choir-book layout. Paper texture is well captured in the digitizations, which are highly consistent graphically. The number of titles is 1863. Few titles are attributed. Those that are come mainly from Guillaume Dufay (105 titles), Gilles Binchois (52), and John Dunstaple (30). The originals are preserved in the Castello di Buonconsiglio, Trent (IT).
3.4.1 Early Nineteenth-Century Opera
Website: Early Nineteenth-Century Opera
This website in the Loeb Music Library at Harvard features vocal scores mainly from Paris (Spontini, Auber, Rossini) and Neapolitan works by Donizetti.
3.4.2 Opera in Italy, Austria, and Germany (1770-1830)
This site contains an array of resources for the study of operas (most unavailable in modern editions) that were contemporaneous with the life of Beethoven (1770–1827), who was notoriously frustrated in his attempts to succeed in the world of opera. Its holdings include 483 manuscripts, reproductions of printed libretti for every work listed, and an extensive metadata apparatus for basic information on composers, performances, and sources. Its reach is broader than the title suggests, for works performed in France, Austria, and elsewhere beyond Italy and Germany are found. In cases in which an included opera has an anterior antecedent, metadata is also given for the pre-existing opera, even when it predates the new work by as much as a century. This enables a reader to trace some of the long tendrils of gestation that might otherwise be found only in a critical edition. The manuscript sources used in Opera come from libraries in Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Vienna, and Weimar. Wolf-Dieter (romance languages) and Wolfram Steinbeck (musicology) are the project leaders.
3.5 Other Genres and Traditions
3.5.1 American Vernacular Music Manuscripts (ca. 1730-1910)
This cooperative project representing digital collections from the American Antiquarian Society and the Center for Popular Music at Middle Tennessee State University holds much promise for mapping the past of American traditional music. Holdings range from shape-note tune books and devotional pieces to marches, music for figured dances, for circuses, for regimental corps, and for a wide range of utilitarian pieces penned by amateurs for an unknown occasion. Additionally, it holds many bound books of manuscripts prepared by teachers and pupils, in most cases for instruction to European settlers in nineteenth-century America.
3.5.2 Gospel Music History Archives
Website: Gospel Music History Archives
This umbrella website at the University of Southern California aims at durable preservation of materials in fragile collections. Its contents come from the Gospel Music History Project, the Center for Religion and Civic Culture, the Archives of African American Music and Culture (Indiana University), and USC collections. Contributions are welcome.
3.5.3 Kleiner Collection of Silent Movie Music
The Kleiner Collection of Silent Movie Music at the University of Minnesota contains roughly 700 silent films. In 1939 Alfred Kleiner, an immigrant from Vienna, was named director of the New York Museum of Modern Art's film festival. After retirement (1967) he continued his work in Minnesota. Scores and recordings with expired copyrights are accessible online.
3.5.4 Renaissance Music in Croatia
Website: Renaissance Music in Croatia
This collection, directed by Ennio Stipcevic, Philippe Vendrix, and Vasco Zara, is served under the auspices of the Ricercar project in Tours. Music in manuscripts, prints, and other sources by Croatian composers are listed and offered in modern transcriptions. MIDI files accompany some entries. (Some included sources are held elsewhere.) The chanson is the genre that links the Croatian materials to the French materials, although the materials currently loaded favor madrigals. Some of the materials are sacred and/or instrumental music. A Roman missal (Venice, 1485-86) is also included.
3.5.5 Scottish Fiddle Music
Website: Scottish Fiddle Music
Scottish fiddle tunes were published in large collections, the number of works per collection being swelled by the need for conspicuous persons prominent patrons to have a dance-tune named for them. This website depend on digitized copies of these collections at Glasgow University. Previously called Historical Music of Scotland.
3.5.6 The Spirituals Database
Website: The Spirituals Database
The searchable Spirituals Database provides searchable information on over 1,600 tracks from recordings of spirituals written for solo voice. Developed and maintained by Randye Jones, it explores the impact of classically trained singers on this Afrocentric repertory. Historical background on the repertory and biographical information on performers are included. Examples come from compact discs, long-playing (33 1/3 rpm) albums, 78 rpm records, 45 rpm discs and audio cassettes, and demonstration recordings.
3.6 Institutional Histories
3.7 Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives
Website: Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives
This heterogeneous website covers the full apparatus of a well-known orchestra, including programs, photographs, specially commissioned works, premieres. The orchestra was established in 1881. The database can be searched by performance, artist, and repertory.
3.7.1 New York Philharmonic
A comprehensive site containing images, scores marked up by famous conductors, correspondence, concert programs, and much else. In addition to recreating much of the concert life of New York in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the archive provides open data access. Scholars are already digging into subscriber information of past decades.
3.8 Performance History
3.8.1 Stockhausen Concerts Database
Website: [Stockhausen Concerts Database]
Although the focus (1952-1972) is somewhat narrow, this website (in beta from 2015) shows the enormous interest in the music of Karl-Heinz Stockhausen (1928-2007) during those decades and where it was most popular. An early associate of the Darmstadt School, Stockhausen's musical interests ranged broadly and spread to vocal and electronic music in the 1960s. Links to complementary databases are planned.
4 Structured Databases
Databases containing material of value to musicologists have been in creation for more than 30 years. While most are focused on a single subject, methods of structuring are variable. Sites in which the material is predominantly textual are listed here. Text and image are integrated on some sites. Sites that focus on images with only sparse metadata are listed above. Among subjects listed here here: catalogues, inventories, and thematic indices; letters and treatises; instrument makers; ethnomusicological sources; and image archives.
4.1 By Repertory
4.1.1 Secular Vocal and Folksong Repertories
220.127.116.11 Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads Catalogue
Website: Bodleian Broadside Ballads Project
The Bodleian broadside ballads project, which was developed mainly from 1995 to 2000, spans the history of the genre. A search form enables users to access the allegro Catalogue of Ballads by sheet or ballad title, first line, and tune name as well as publisher, date, and other parameters.
18.104.22.168 César: French Theatrical Database
The Calendrier électronique des spectacles sour l'ancien régime et sous la révolution, originally developed at Oxford Brookes University by Barry Russell (1943-2003) and in Toronto by David Trott (1940-2005) but expanded to include other collaborators after their deaths, offers a searchable database of personnel (broadly defined), titles, dates, venues, and pertinent treatises on the French theater of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Among its most unusual holdings are its calendar of police reports from the revolutionary period. With over 400,000 items covering actors, playrights, venues, et al., CESAR covers the entire francophone world.
22.214.171.124 Catalogue de la Chanson Française à la Renaissance (Chanson Database)
A search site with extensive metadata and musical incipits for a repertory of 10,000 works from the sixteenth century. Multiple settings of the same text have individual listings (e.g. "Susanne un jour" currently has 26 listings). Works can be searched by title, scoring, composer, source, location, and text. Instrumental arrangements of originally texted pieces are included. The site is cross-referenced to comprehensive secondary sources and modern editions. The project is directed by Annie Cœurdevey at Ricercar, the musicology research program of the Centre d'Études Supérieures de la Renaissance (CESR) at l'université François-Rabelais de Tours.
126.96.36.199 CLORI: Archive of the Italian Cantata
CLORI, which hosts cantata texts, manuscript source citations, and images that show characteristics of handwriting, has a number of sponsors and collaborators including the Italian Musicological Society (SIdM in Italian), the University of Rome (Tor Vergata), the Italian Institute for Music History (IISM), and RISM. The project is headed by Teresa M. Gialdroni. Click the "ricerca" button to go to the search form.
188.8.131.52 Deutsches Volksliedarchiv (German Folksong Archive)
Website: Deutsches Volksliedarchiv
The German Folk Music Archive (in German) has evolved over a century (to 2014) as a central clearing house for folk songs from German-speaking lands. It contains several component parts including (1) a Lieder Lexicon in which folksong texts are listed alphabetically; (2) a listing of specific projects, mainly those with a critical dimension; and (3) a popular Song Lexicon.
184.108.40.206 EASMUS: Early American Secular Music and its European Sources
This extensive canvas of secular music in the American colonies and early states (1589–1839) consists of a series of indices (titles, first lines, musical incipits [by scale degree], stressed notes, et al.). It was developed over the 1970s and 80s by Kate Van Winkle Keller, Robert Keller, Carolyn Rabson, Raoul F. Camus, and Susan Cifaldi. The contents include ballad operas, band music, song sheets, theater works, and the names of tunes played by musical clocks.
220.127.116.11 English Broadside Ballad Archive
Website: English Broadside Ballad Archive
Six thousand English broadside ballads, mainly from the seventeenth century, are included in this comprehensive project extending to related artistic and cultural phenomena. It development continues through 2016.
18.104.22.168 HUAPALA: Hawaiian Lyrics and Hula Archives
Under development since 1997, HUAPALA is a website consisting mainly of texts derived from recordings of Hawaiian traditional music. Its aim is to preserve the musical culture of the Hawaiian Islands through not only the lyrics but also associated artifacts. Some musical overlaps with Samoa and Tahiti allow for comparison of lyrics from the broader Polynesian world.
22.214.171.124 Loire Valley Chanson Sources
Website: Chansonniers of the Loire Valley
The Goldberg Foundation has set up a system of hyperlinks to digitized resources for this subsector of the chanson repertory. As a collaborative project, it is somewhat uneven in its offerings. In compensation, comments can be appended to listings.
126.96.36.199 Old English Songs
Website: Old English Songs
This collection, housed at the University of Kentucky, was once owned by the double-bass player Domenico Dragonetti. The contents mainly consist of opera arias (Handel, Bononcini, Purcell) and cantatas (rather than folksongs or sea shanties) in scanned images.
188.8.131.52 Fondo de Música Tradicional (Traditional Music of Spain)
The Fondo de Música Tradicional, hosted by the Institució Milá i Fontanals (IMF-CSIC) in Barcelona, includes more than 20,000 melodic transcriptions collected between 1944 and 1960 from regional oral traditions throughout Spain. Most music in the database was compiled through efforts of the former Instituto Español de Musicología of CSIC. The website/database contains 10,000 unique pieces from more than 4,500 informants at 3,000 locations within Andalusia, the Balearic Islands, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León Region, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Murcia Region and the Valencian community. The collection also includes old video and audio recordings. Additional materials are continually being incorporated by the project's team, directed by Emilio Ros-Fábregas.
184.108.40.206 VolksLiedWerke (Austrian Folksong Database)
The VolksLiedWerke is assembled from collections originating in Austria's states. Searches by title, personal name, or corporate name are possible. Supported by the Austrian National Library (Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek) and other entities. Some regions have separate websites, such as this one for the Tyrol, where scores and recordings may also be found.
4.1.2 Sacred and Liturgical Music
220.127.116.11 Antiphonale Synopticum
Website: Antiphonale Synopticum
The Antiphonale Synopticum project (currently in German only) is the most recent addition to the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. Based at the Universität Regensburg, it is directed by Harald Buchinger. It seeks to support identification of textual and melodic variants. Antiphonale Synopticum and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
18.104.22.168 CANTUS Manuscript Database: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant
Website: Cantus Manuscript Database
Cantus is a large, steadily-growing resource containing inventories of medieval chant manuscripts and related analytical tools. Its original home was the Catholic University of America (Washington, DC) under Ruth Steiner. After a period at the University of Western Ontario (London) under Terence Bailey, the database was moved to the University of Waterloo where Debra Lacoste is the current project manager and Jan Koláček (Prague) is its web developer. It has recently expanded from inventories of antiphoners and breviaries to manuscript sources containing Mass chants, including sequences. By providing a searchable database of detailed information for (currently) over 160 medieval manuscripts and over 440,00 chants, the Cantus Manuscript Database is a useful digital archive for musicologists and other academic researchers, librarians, archivists, as well as performers of this early music. Users can search for chants by text, saints’ name or liturgical occasion, and Cantus ID number. Tools for browsing, analysis, and data-entry are provided. An introduction to the database can be found in a YouTube video by Lacoste (2014). The Cantus Manuscript Database is the flagship site in the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. The Cantus Manuscript Database, Cantus Index, and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
22.214.171.124 Cantus Fractus Database (Projetto Raphael)
Website: Cantus Fractus
An abiding problem in chant research is the evaluation of rhythm and proportion. This website (in Italian) by Marco Gozzi explores interpretative methods for repertories that are viewable online in early prints and manuscripts. A search form facilitates the retrieval of examples by source location. Excellent leaf-by-leaf viewing tools are provided.
126.96.36.199 Cantus Planus Regensburg
Website: Cantus Planus Regensburg
Cantus Planus Regensburg is a long-established web archive for medieval chant research. It includes downloadable data files and various databases, e.g. Post-Easter and Pentecost Alleluias, Responsories of the Dead (Ottosen), Advent Responsories (Hesbert), Medieval liturgical manuscripts in German and British libraries, and other pertinent tools such as David Hiley’s (et al) very useful medieval chant bibliographies. The project is directed by David Hiley and Robert Klugseder.
188.8.131.52 Cantus Ultimus: See under Search Engines
The online implementation of Max Haas's lengthy investigation of chant variants is recent. After loading the data one can search either by text or by melody. A "canvas" offers a graph to map chant movement.
184.108.40.206 Comparatio (Chant Comparison)
Website: Comparatio (Chant Comparison)
Comparatio, a member of the Cantus Index Network, presents transcriptions of selected chants in side-by-side views to facilitate the identification of liturgical traditions. It was developed at the Institut de recerche et d'histoire des textes (IRHT) of the Centre national de la recerche scientifique (CNRS) by Claire Maître. Comparatio and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
220.127.116.11 Corpus Pulcriorem Invenire (CPI-I): Online catalogue of Conductus poetry and musical settings
Mark Everist's CPI-I (Cantus pulcriorem invenire) contains almost 900 works found in 550 sources. The emphasis is on the poetry. A variety of ways to search it (by form, numbers of stanzas, lines per stanza, language, poet, and stanza rhyme structure) is available. Musical features (composer, notation, format) are also searchable. Sources listed are digitized and viewable online. Cross-listed to DIAMM and RISM.
18.104.22.168 Fontes Cantus Bohemiae
Website: Fontes Cantus Bohemiae
Fontes Cantus Bohemiae is a member of the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. This site aims to inventory chant sources in Czech regions of Central Europe. Data representing 7,200 chants from the 12th-14th centuries have been uploaded to date in CANTUS-compatible formats.
FCB and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
Under the Répertoire tab of the Académie de Chant grégorien, the website Gregorien.info contains thousands of chant texts, their sources, and translations. The site is linked to the Cantus Index Network, and is now owned and directed by Inga Behrendt. The history of the development of the website is here. Gregorien.info and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
22.214.171.124 Hungarian Chant Database
Website: Hungarian Chant Database
The Hungarian Chant Database is a member of the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. The Hungarian Chant Database stems from the earlier CAO-ECE (Corpus Antiphonalium Officii - Ecclesiarum Centralis Europae) work, which was designed to inventory and compare medieval Central European Office repertories. The component parts are these:
(1) CAO-ECE, the original component, was intended to facilitate studies of change in liturgical traditions over time and the study of other relationships within the liturgical Office of the middle ages.
(2) Gradualia, the newer component, brought similar capabilities to the medieval Mass but with greater attention to source material.
The HCD and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
126.96.36.199 Hymn Tune Index
Website: Hymn Tune Index
The venerable Hymn Tune Index (HTI) has been developed over more than 40 years by Nicholas Temperley. Its initial aim was provide an index of all hymns with English-lnaguage lyrics up to the year 1900. At present the online part goes through 1820. Listing for the remainder of the nineteenth century are in progress. A full history is available here.
Hymn tunes have their own conventions of indexing, among which the metrical scansion of the verse(s) is prominent. Identical profiles are grouped together, facilitating a search by this rubric. Hymns can be search by name and by its HTI number; by title; by lyrics; by the name of a compiler; and by composer.
Temperley's work has produced the four-volume printed Hymn Tune Index published by Oxford University Press (1998); revisions to it can be found here. The online search capabilities have been developed at the University of Illinois since then.
188.8.131.52 Mass Database
Website: Mass Database (Mainz)
Records for c.40,000 settings of the Ordinary of the Mass from 1400 to the present day. In process of migration (March 2014).
184.108.40.206 Mass, Office, and Holy Week Music Printed in Italy (1518-1770)
This online catologue by Jeffrey Kurtzman and Anne Schnoebelen in the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music (JSCM) Instrumenta series contains 2,004 listings of printed music for the Mass and Office. The resource provides complete verbal material (title pages, dedications, prefaces, indices, contents by text incipits, liturgical and performance rubrics, and all other verbal material with the exception of full texts), most in diplomatic transcription, of all known prints of this repertoire. The remarks include format, sources consulted and other information of particular note. Entries, in pdf format, are fully searchable with lengthy indices of less obvious terms in all orthographical variants.
220.127.116.11 Medieval Music Manuscripts, Austria
Website: Medieval Muisic Manuscripts, Austria
The CantusPlanus.at website (officially entitled Musikalische Quellen des Mittelalters, or Musical Sources of the Middle Ages in the Austrian National Library), based at the Austrian Academy of Science, provides both detailed information on medieval music manuscripts in the Austrian National Library and basic information for manuscripts in all other Austrian libraries. Images for all manuscripts of the National Library plus full digitizations of some other special manuscripts (14,500 images) are provided. There is also access to the (manually-compiled) database of Constantin Schneider (1928), which addresses more than 1,650 sources. Several other data resources are included. Although not officially connected to the Cantus Index Network or Cantus Manuscript Database, several codices have been inventoried according to “Cantus” standards. The project leader is Robert Klugseder.
18.104.22.168 Medieval Music Database (MMD)
Website:Medieval Music Database
The original database, a model of integrated presentation combined with independent search of text and music fields, was developed by John Stinson and John Griffiths at LaTrobe University (Australia) between 1987 and 1999, when the university's music department was closed. It was maintained over the next five years by the University Library and is still accessible (2014) at the above link. Plans to bring it under the umbrella of DIAMM are under discussion.
One of MMD's great strength, for students of liturgy, is the ability to scroll bilaterally through the temporal and sanctoral cycles, that is by feasts of the Ordinary and those of the Proper. Other supported search fields are text, composer, genre, manuscript, and melody. MMD is cross-referenced to the CAO database.
The musical examples in MMD were originally produced with Scribe software, also developed by Stinson and Griffiths (c. 1990). It encoded neumes and ligatures (mainly for fourteenth-century music) for printing on a color deskjet printer. It was designed for the DOS operating system and could export to the SCORE music-notation program. Jason Stoessel is continuing the development of the MMD.
22.214.171.124 Motet Database (1475-1600)
Website: Motet Database (1475-1600)
Jennifer Thomas's guide to motets and Mass Propers in manuscript and printed sources from the period 1475-1600. 33,000 items, indexed section by section. Excludes Magnificats, Lamentations, canticles, and strophic hymns. Offers extensive scribal and source detail.
126.96.36.199 Motets printed in France (Motet imprimé en France 1647-1789)
Website: Motet imprimé en France (1647-1789)
This project within the NEUMA consortium currently contains a musical index with incipits (available in several formats) for almost 1,000 printed works. Notable composers represented in Campra, Couperin, Clérambault, and the Dutch polymath Constantijn Huygens together with motets by many little-known composers and several anonymous Noëls. Nathalie Berton-Blivet is the curator.
188.8.131.52 Musica Sacra
Website: Musica Sacra
This notable collection of scanned chant books includes the Liber Usualis and many other resources for modern use in traditional settings.
This website of the Seminario de Musica en la Nueva Espana y el Mexico Independiente, an international workgroup based in Mexico City, is a portal to two online, open-access databases of interest to musicologists, as well as an open-access digitized collection of 17th- and 18th-century music manuscripts from Mexico City Cathedral presented through agreement with the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. These databases are in progress and growing:
Musicat: Actas de Cabildo is a searchable compendium of references to music in cathedral documents in the period 1525-1828.
Musicat: Catalogos de Musica is an OPAC catalog with musical incipits of manuscript and printed music at Mexican Cathedrals.
Coleccion Estrada is a digitized collection of 122 manuscripts of 17th- and 18th- century Mexican music sources.
Libros de coro is an online guide to the collection of choir books at Mexico City Cathedral. At present it includes 18,000 images.
Most pages contain explanations in both Spanish and English. The search page (in Spanish only) is found at http://musicat.unam.mx/nuevo/adabi_busqueda.php. Although works are predominantly sacred ones, many villancicos, pedagogical materials, and simple songs can also be found. Underlying literary sources are in Spanish, Latin, and African dialects found in sources. Tjhe databases are maintained by the Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas of the Universidad Nacional de Mexico.
184.108.40.206 Plainchant Sources in Poland
This member of the Cantus Index Network provides access to both Mass and Office sources in a range of libraries in Poland. It is based at the Polish Academy of Sciences in collaboration with other institutions and is directed by Bartosz Izbicki. Within Poland it is cross-linked with several music-bibliography sites. Cantus Planus in Polonia and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
220.127.116.11 Portuguese Early Music (PEM) Database
The Portuguese Early Music Database (PEM) links Portuguese music manuscript listings with both RISM entries and the Cantus Manuscript Database (and its main catalogue, the Cantus Index). PEM is searchable by genre, feast, and composer. The digital holdings of the Centro de Estudios de Sociologia e Estética Musical consist overwhelmingly of short sacred vocal works found sources that are extremely fragile and therefore well served by digitization. Manuscripts are mainly from the 14th–16th centuries. All sources are reproduced in color. A full listing is here. PEM also maintains a list of links for early sacred-music projects. PEM and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
18.104.22.168 Printed Sacred Music Database
Website: Printed Sacred Music Database
This collection of metadata and musical incipits (1500-1800) has been developed over decades under the direction of David Bryant at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini Onlus, Venice, with significant contributions by many individual scholars, and is now served at the Institute of Musicology, University of Fribourg (CH) and implemented by the Swiss RISM office. Search by composers, publishers, musical incipits, and much else. The musical incipits are encoded in DARMS and are rendered in mensural notation.
22.214.171.124 Psalm Database (Psalmendatenbank)
Website: Psalm Database (Psalmendatenbank)
The Psalmendatenbank has been developed in the Weimar-Jena musicology seminar under the direction of Helen Geyer. Contributors include Christian G. Grote, Michael Pauser, and Birgit Johanna Wertenson. Its focus is on psalm settings in Italian manuscripts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
126.96.36.199 RELICS (Renaissance Liturgical Imprints)
Website: RELICS: A Census
This database, hosted at the University of Michigan, contains entries on c. 14,000 sources of liturgical music printed through the year 1600. Started by David Crawford (1995) and continued by James Borders, the database contains entries from publications in France, Germany, and many other European countries. Coverage extends to multiple Roman Catholic rites and to Protestant and Jewish liturgies.
188.8.131.52 Slovak Early Music Database (Cantus Planus in Slovakia)
Website: Slovak Early Music Database
The Slovak Early Music Database is a member of the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. The SEMD focuses on manuscript sources (some of them fragmentary) and some early prints from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. Based at the Slovak Academy of Sciences, it is directed by Eva Veselovská. The database, on which other Slovak institutions collaborate, currently offers over 300 items (manuscripts or fragments) which can be searched by title, feast, and other rubrics. Source images are available at high resolution. The Slovak Early Music Database and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
184.108.40.206 Spanish Early Music Manuscripts (Musica Hispanica)
Spanish Early Music Manuscripts is a member of the Cantus Index Network–a series of connected, online projects employing the same structure and methodology. SEMM focuses on manuscript sources from medieval Spain, and endeavours to catalogue the “old Hispanic” chants in surviving antiphoners, breviaries, graduals and missals. Carmen Julia Gutiérrez is its project manager. SEMM and its networked partners operate under the guidelines of the Cantus Planus Study Group of the International Musicological Society, which include the free and open exchange of data in electronic form.
4.1.3 Instrumental Music
220.127.116.11 The Clarinet Quintet
Website: The Clarinet Quintet
This online catalog is a continuing project to bring together all repertoire that exists for the clarinet quintet (defined as a string quartet plus a clarinet). The project seeks to offer complete, authoritative data relative to each composition and to demonstrate the totality of the genre. To that end, the site allows for, and welcomes, comments, verifiable corrections, and appropriate ancillary information that may help illuminate a better understanding of an individual work or the entirety of the repertoire.
This online catalog evolved from the personal catalog of Donald L. Oehler. Currently containing 600 works, it was developed over decades of a professional career. The project will continue to grow as works are regularly entered not only from Oehler's collected catalog listings but from the most recent and reliable data available for new works or newly discovered works. Currently (2015) the online catalog is approaching 400 entries." Each entry shows a facsimile of the first page and gives title concordances and other information about the work. The site's search boxes enables random access. Works can be grouped by period, country of origin, and key.
18.104.22.168 Classical String Quartets
Website: Classical String Quartets
Duke University's Classical String Quartets website may not represent the largest collection of this repertory, but it is the largest collection of digitized prints currently accessible online. Its contents are characterized as "rare and unusual" rather than mainstream. If you are looking for variety, consider Förster, Gassmann, Pixis, or Wranitsky (a small sampling of composers represented).
22.214.171.124 Hof-Musik (Court Music)
Website: Hof-Musik (Court Music)
Hof-Musik is not so much one database as a collection of resources for studying music and musicians (mainly instrumentalists) in the courts of Southwest Germany. It is based at the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences. Musicians are listed here, instrument makers [their metyhod here]. The number of smaller courts included is considerable. Some editions and facsimiles are also available.
126.96.36.199 Jazzomat Research Project
Website: Jazzomat (Weimar Jazz Database)
Version 2.0 of the Weimar Jazz Database contains 456 transcriptions of solos by famous artists--John Coltrane, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong, and many others. Hosted at the Hochschule für Musik Franz Liszt Weimar, it offers a Python Library (MeloSpyLib) for analytical purposes. In the database section, PDF scores give transcriptions for the solos.
4.1.4 Instrument Makers and Collections
188.8.131.52 Liuteria Bresciana
Website: Brescian Instrument Makers
Brescia was the first home of violin-making. So many of the early makers died in the plague of 1630-31 that Brescia was unable to regain its former glory. It exerted considerable influence on instrument-making in nearby Cremona, which flourished after 1650. Ugo Ravasio's website (Liuteria Bresciana), which covers the period from 1550 into until the eighteenth century, mainly emphasizes the pre-1630 period.
MINIM is a composite online website (Musical Instrument Interface for Museums and Collections) for information, photographs and pertinent recordings of instruments in UK collections. With 20,000 listings, it is the largest repository of its kind in the UK and is managed by the Royal College of Music, London. Its central contributions come from the Royal College of Music, Edinburgh University, the Royal Academy of Music, and the Horniman Museum. Users may browse by collection or by instrument family. They may search by instrument name. Vivid illustrations are plentiful. MINIM is loosely linked with them pan-European MIMO project.
184.108.40.206 Music Instrument Museums Online (MIMO)
Music Instrument Museums Online (MIMO) is a multilingual, searchable site providing descriptions of individual musical instruments in curated collections worldwide. Its 55,000 items can be viewed by family or by location. Results can be filtered by date, place of production, and maker. Measurements and other details of each instrument are provided. Its iconographical value is very considerable. The spinet of 1610 by Vincenzo di Prato, pictured here, comes from Grassi collection in the museum of the University of Leipzig.
220.127.116.11 National Music Museum
Website: National Music Museum
The National Music Museum (Vermilion, South Dakota, US) possesses a highly diverse collection of instruments. It also houses a program on instrument conservation. The main components of the collections are (1) the Witten-Rawlins collection of Northern Italian (Brescian-Cremonese) strings from the seventeenth century, (2) an extensive group of instruments manufactured in the US in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and (3) a substantial collection of instruments from other parts of the world. The NMM provides links to many other little-known collections.
18.104.22.168 The Piano in Polish Collections
Website: The Piano in Polish Collections
This website contains databases (with copious photographs) of historic collections, instruments, and ephemera in several Polish collections including the Museum of Industrial History in Opatowic, the Andrzej Szwalbe Collection in Ostromecko, and the Fryderyk Chopin Institutein Warsaw. Many of the photographs in the blog contain sketches, pastels, lithographs, and paintings of musicians at work.
22.214.171.124 Polish Folk Instruments
Website: Polish Folk Instruments
The Museum of Folk Instruments in Szydłowiec, established in 1968, houses the largest collection of folk instruments in Poland and documents rich musical relationships with adjacent regions. Holdings date from the seventeenth century onward and currently number more than 2,000. The collection (which is housed in the Szydłowiecy-Radziwill Castle, is particularly rich in bowed instruments, cymbals, and bagpipes. Some links within the site provide sound files.
4.1.5 Historical and Liturgical Calendars
126.96.36.199 Historical Calendars of Europe (HCAL)
Website: Historic Calendars of Europe (HCAL)
Those looking to reconcile modern dates with those in use before the Gregorian calendar was adopted can derive a correct translation here. Many more calendars were in use than those indicated here. Adoption of the Gregorian (modern Western) calendar occurred between 1582 and 1926. Standardized tools to generate early calendars (e.g. the Unix cal tool) ignore historical change and thus render incorrect results.
188.8.131.52 Liturgical Calendars
Many sights offer these modern calendars with various degrees of refinement, but they are not appropriate for historical use. There can be local variations in the days of minor saints. See such sites as Liturgy Office (UK); the Liturgical Calendar Online; Greek Orthodox. Some cultures maintain separate civic and religious calendars and thus impose an additional level of complexity to the reconciliation of dates. Orthodox Jewish culture offers one example. In simpler circumstances, the Etz Hayim website offers instructive examples on the reconciliation of Christian and Jewish dating systems. The Muslim calendar is complicated in a global context because of its dependence on (the time of) the initial visibility of a new moon, in combination of adherents across many times zones. Additional cultures and religions, including Buddhism and Eastern Orthodoxy, are included in Santa Clara University's Calendars of the World's Religions website.
4.1.6 Musical Personnel
184.108.40.206 Musico Napolitano (Neapolitan Musicians)
Musico Napolitano is a searchable database of references to musicians from Naples cited in letters, archival records, institutions, and other documentation. Based at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, it has the aim of fleshing out bibliographies of migratory musicians whose biographies are not easily traceable. The website offers several rubrics to search by. These include rosters organized by name, role (or instrument), and institution. The map identifying the location of institutions is very useful. The website welcomes contributions of information.
4.1.7 Other Rubrics
220.127.116.11 British Music Festivals Repertoire (1695-1940)
The Musical Festivals Database (MFD) provides a searchable database of repertory programmed in British festivals between 1695 and 1940. Many items come from the choral festivals that were popular in Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Results can quickly attest to the fickleness of taste, as specific locales, composers, and genres blinked on an off for brief periods.
18.104.22.168 Germania Sacra
Website: Germania Sacra
Germania Sacra has several facets to what is essentially a database of personnel in German churches and monasteries from the medieval through early modern periods. Primary emphasis is placed on earlier period. The register of people (linked here) gives the flavor of the whole. It contains 4,000 listings (2016).
22.214.171.124 Medici Archive Project
Website: Medici Archive Project
The Medici Archive Project (MAP) is an ambitious effort to focus attention on the vast archives of the Medici Principiate (which endured from the early Renaissance until 1737) in the Florentine State Archives. It is conceived as a continuing project and has spawned several quasi-independent research projects. The online database provides short transcriptions from across the entire documentary base. The project has thus far produced more than 300,000 digitized images from the Medici court.
126.96.36.199 Reid Concerts
Website: Reid Concerts
This database of concerts (from 1841) itemizes musical programs given at many venues in the city of Edinburgh under the auspices of the the Reid School of Music in the University of Edinburgh. By itmeizing the contents of many of all preserved concert programmes, it attempts to chart the development and evolution of the ‘Reid Concerts’. Users may investigate composer, medium, genre, venue, date, or even professor in charge to cull specific profiles. The data collection overall enables the study of changes of taste and pedagogy as well as the constellation of pieces that make up concert programs. Begun in 2013, 'Reid Concerts' is still under development. (The School of Music is now a department within Edinburgh College of Art.)
4.2 Composer/Theorist Documentation
4.2.1 Bach Digital
Website: Bach Digital
Bach Digital, based in Leipzig, is a one-stop shop for a catalogue of work by J.S. Bach (BWV); of scanned manuscripts; and of a database of manuscripts associated with the Bach family. When complete, it is intended to serve a wide variety of needs of scholars and interests of a wider music audience. An earlier Datenbank der Bach-Quellen (Database of Bach Sources) operates under the auspices of Göttingen's Johann-Sebastian-Bach Institute here.
4.2.2 Beethoven Digital
Website: Beethoven Digital
The Staatsbibliothek in Berlin makes available close-up views of numerous details of the Beethoven's autograph for the Ninth Symphony. This view shows one of the best known passages of the work: Bars 921–922 of the Maestoso movement with the text "Tochter aus Elysium, Freude, schöner Götterfunken!" (Artaria 204(4), f. 124.) A general commentary on the nine symphonies can be found here.
4.2.3 Fux Online
Website: Fux Online
Fux Online is a growing compendium of information about Johann Joseph Fux (c. 1660-1741), Austria's much revered master of counterpoint. Fux wrote his Gradus ad Parnassum of 1725 in Latin. Only after his death did a German translation by L. CH. Mizler bring it to broader attention. The original work was dedicated to his employer, the Emperor Charles VI. The Gradus ad Parnassus (Steps to Mt. Parnassus, the home of the Nine Muses) is considered the fount of species counterpoint. It attracted such students as G. Ch. Wagenseil and J. D. Zelenka. The approach was strongly influential on composers of the later eighteenth century. It is not generally regarded as descriptive of sixteenth-century Roman practice, although it distills observable practices of that time. Fux Online complements that standing image of Fux with coverage of his sacred vocal music and introduces a new critical edition of Fux's music by Hollitzer Verlag, which will include 600 works.
4.2.4 Handel Reference Database
Website: Handel Reference Database
The Handel Reference Database (HRD) provides a continuously updated version of the documentation that accompanied the Stanford doctoral thesis on the reception of the music of G. Fr. Handel by Ilias Chrissochoidis.
4.2.5 Lassus Manuscript Database
More than 470 prints of Lassus's compositions up to 1687, but many titles known from the prints cannot today be verified against surviving manuscripts. This inventory of manuscripts follows on from Horst Leuchtmann and Bernhold Schmid's inventory of printed works (Kassel, 2001) and attempts to clarify the status of both surviving and lost titles. It supports single-parameter and Boolean (multiple-criteria) searches.
4.2.6 Mozart Correspondence
Website: Mozart Correspondence
This online edition, based on the 1962 edition of Wilhelm Bauer and Erich Deutsch, contains 955 documents. Each letter is presented in parallel in a modern transcription and a photographic reproduction of the original. The resource is maintained by Salzburg Mozarteum and The Packard Humanities Institute.
4.2.7 In Mozart's Words
Website: In Mozart's Words
In Mozart’s Words provides multilingual access to an annotated version of the voluminous correspondence of Mozart and his family (a corpus of approximately 1,400 letters) that will be made available online on this website. The website offers (1) a univocal database of all references to people, places, and musical works contained in the letters, facilitating the systematic search of all cited occurrences, and (2) access to background materials such as reviews, newspapers, documents, objects, paintings, engravings, and books as a corollary to the historical-critical annotations. The texts are synonymous with those of Cliff Eisen's online edition of Mozart's correspondence (2011: ISBN 9780955787676).
4.2.8 Mozart: New Documents
Website: Mozart: New Documents
The aim of this collaborative project, managed by Dexter Edge and David Black, is to bring documentation not reported in musicological literature to public attention. Some items have been retrieved from large repositories of digitized text. A chornological list of posted documents can be found here.
4.2.9 Schenker Documents Online
Website: Schenker Documents Online
Schenker Documents Online (Southampton University) provides a scholarly edition of Heinrich Schenker's correspondence, teaching notes, and translations of materials in German that help to show the gestation and development of his ideas. It concentrates on the period 1925-1930.
4.2.10 Franz Schubert
Website: Schubert Online
Schubert Online offers combined access to a total of 555 autograph scores, letters, and other documentation on Schubert. Much of the work was facilitated by the Vienna Science and Technology Fund [WWTF or Wiener Wissenschafts-, Forschungs- und Technologiefonds]. The holdings covered come from Vienna's City Hall [Rathaus], the Austrian National Library, the State Library of Berlin, and the National Library of Norway, with intellectual contributions from the Music and Psychology program in Cologne and the Musicology Institute at the University of Vienna. Full-text search is supported for the letters. Deutsch Numbers are used for the music manuscripts. In most cases copies of manuscripts must be ordered from the holding library.
4.2.11 Ludwig Senfl: Works
Website: Senfl Online
The most important composer in Bavaria in the first half of the sixteenth century, Ludwig Senfl (c. 1490-1543) spent almost all his life in the Munich court chapel, first as choirboy, then as musician and composer. Polyphonic incipits in mensural notation are among the items that can be retrieved by genre, voicing, and so forth. Cross-linked to DIAMM.
4.2.12 Louis Spohr Correspondence
Website: Louis Spohr Correspondence
Between 1803 and the end of his life, Louis (Ludwig) Spohr (1786-1859) was constantly in touch family members, composers, conductors, and other musicians. The Kassel University Library has digitized his correspondence. Spohr composed roughly 300 works (half did not carry opus numbers). They included symphonies, operas, Lieder, and other genres. A violinist and conductor, Spohr is credited with the invention of the chinrest, the conductor's baton, and rehearsal letters but is remembered partly for his influential Violinschule. His autobiography is unpublished. His self-portrait (c. 1830) is shown here.
4.2.13 Giuseppe Verdi: Correspondence
This collection of letters (1838–1883) especially concerns the countess Clara Maffei and Verdi's wife, Giuseppina Strepponi. It was placed online for the Verdi centenary in 2013 by the Braidense National Library in Milan.
4.2.14 Ricordi Historical Archives
Website: Verdi Correspondence and Memorabilia
This great bulk of items in this miscellany (1786 of 2092), which includes corrspondence, scenery designs, pertains to Verdi and his dealings with Giovanni, Tito, and Giulio Ricordi, deals with librettists, casting, staging, and other production details, 1849-1893. One letter (1897) is from Giacomo Puccini.
4.3 Digitized Manuscripts and Early Printed Music
4.3.1 Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive
The Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive is a model operation. Note the frame at the left, which identifies all digitized music; a special collection for flute; another for guitar; and the entire Carl Nielsen Edition available for download. Although Danish music is well served, the site includes a great deal more, including eighteenth-century manuscripts, standard repertory in high-quality late nineteenth-century prints, and a special theater collection including opera libretti.
4.3.2 Early Music Online
Website: Early Music Online
Early Music Online is a digital repository of music in printed anthologies principally from the sixteenth century. Based on holdings in the British Library and related to one series of RISM listings, the digitized volumes of EMO include madrigals, sacred songs, music "concerted by voices and instruments," and pedagogical works.
4.3.3 National Library of Scotland
Website: National Library of Scotland
These digitized sources provide access to digitized copies of the Inglis collection of printed music, memoirs, lyrics to Scottish folksongs, musical magazines, and Scottish keyboard music.
4.3.4 Singakademie Music Archives
Website: Singakademie Music Archives
The collection of mainly eighteenth-century vocal music belonging to Berlin's Singakademie since the time of Karl Friedrich Zelter was long dislodged by twentieth-century wars and politics. The institution's history is the focus of a project to digitize letters, documents, and materials on which prospective applications were tested. The Singakademie is also a participant in the Bach Digital and other projects related to music and musical culture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
4.4 Online Thematic Catalogues and Indices
4.4.1 The Bizet Catalogue
Website: The Bizet Catalogue
Every repertory has idiosyncrasies that make the adoption of a standard template ill-advised. Hugh Macdonald's Bizet Catalogue shows one of Bizet's idiosyncrasies through a listing of the composer's transcriptions of works by others (Gounod, Mozart, Saint-Saëns, et al.). The primary listing of works gives folio-by-folio detail of manuscripts for longer works with texts of underlying verses and notes on their authors, citations of self-borrowings, and much else.
4.4.2 Benjamin Britten Thematic Catalogue
Website: Benjamin Britten Thematic Catalogue
The Britten Thematic Catalogue, an online only project based at the Britten-Pears Foundation, provides multiple access points for searching. Britten's career was extremely wide-ranging. His arrangements of music by Henry Purcell (54 titles) and of British folksongs (74 titles) filled much of his time in the 1940s and early '50s. The full gamut stretches from chamber music (134 items) mainly from the 1920s to his stage work Death in Venice (1973). Each work contains a detailed index with a graphical display and sound files.
4.4.3 Chambonnières: A Thematic Catalogue
Website: Chambonières: A Thematic Catalogue
Bruce Gustavson's Chambonnières: A Thematic Catalogue. The Complete Works of Jacques Champion de Chambonnières (1601/02–1672) appears as Vol. 1 in the Instrumenta series of the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music. The series is digital only and is dedicated to voluminous music bibliographies.
4.4.4 Frescobaldi Thematic Catalogue Online
This database has a multi-faceted search interface. It is cross-linked to RISM IDs and has detailed source listings. (Content tends to vary slightly by source.) The general time-frame indicator gives a sense of the long tradition of recopying that followed the composer's works. Links to printed commentaries and modern editions are provided. Currently 906 works are included.
4.4.5 GWV - Graupner-Werke-Verzeichnis (Thematic Catalogue of the Works of Christoph Graupner)
Website: GWV - Graupner-Werke-Verzeichnis
This online catalog of works for Christoph Graupner (1683-1760) contains links to his digitized manuscripts at the Technische Universität in Darmstadt. After studies at the Thomas Schule, Leipzig, and a stint as cembalist of the Hamburg Opera orchestra (from 1705), Graupner was called to the service of Ernst Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt (1709). He remained there for the rest of his life. His numerous works (1,418 church cantatas, 24 secular cantatas, 113 symphonies, 44 solo concertos, 80 suites, miscellaneous chamber music, and eight operas) are largely preserved in the Darmstadt University and (Hessian) State Library. Links on the left lead to manuscript reproductions, those on the right to commercial recordings and editions. Florian Hayerick directs the project.
4.4.6 J.P.E. Hartmann Catalogue (Thematic-Bibliographic Catalgue of His Works)
Among his 590 compositions, Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (1805-1900) demonstrated his mastery of all current genres (stage, choral, instrumental, organ, and vocal music) during his long lifetime. Although of German descent, he spent almost all of his life in Copenhagen. Louis Spohr and Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse were important influences. He was also acquainted with Fryderyk Chopin, Gioachino Rossini, and Luigi Cherubini. This presentation color-codes each genre so that as users pass down the list of his works, they can easily recognize changes of boundary without being trapped by them. Within each genre, listings are organized alphabetically.
4.4.7 Catalogue of Carl Nielsen's Works
Website: Catalogue of Carl Nielsen's Works
The Danish National Library has prepared this online catalogue of 414 pieces, including operas, symphonies, and concertos plus vocal, choral, and chamber pieces. Each entry includes musical incipits, lists of sources and sketches, citations for textual sources, and lists of performances.
In association with the Nielsen Catalogue, implemented by Axel Teich Geertinger, an editing tool for metadata used in similar projects has been developed by Sigfrid Lundberg and can be downloaded from GitHub. Based on MEI, the foundation of MerMEId was laid by Kristine Richts and Maya Hartwig. Further details about MerMEId and a sample implementation can be found at this site.
4.4.8 Johann Adolph Scheibe: A Catalogue of his Works
The son of an organ-builder, Johann Adolph Scheibe (1708-1776) studied law in Leipzig prior to pursuing a career in music. During a short stint in Hamburg, where he met Johann Mattheson, Schiebe began his periodical Der Critische Musicus (1737-1740). It lapsed after his move (1739) to Copenhagen, where he served as court Kapellmeister first under the pious Christian VI, then under the more liberal Frederick V. Apart from his criticism, theoretical works, satires, and letters, Scheibe authored 80 instrumental pieces, a few dozen secular vocal works, a handful of stage pieces, songs, poems, text translations, and a few satires. This catalogue of holdings, produced by the Danish National Library, includes digitized images of them.
Images, sound files, and videos on the internet offer great scope for ethnomusicological study, but much of the material is limited to poorly documented materials with arbitrary labels. Only selected sites can be included here.
4.5.1 UNC Middle Eastern Music
Website: Middle Eastern Music
The University of North Carolina offers top-down collections of selected repertories from Egyptian, Turkish, Iraqi, and classical Persian music. Each site varies from the others. Explanatory material concerning composers, instruments, styles, and cultural emphases are general to most. The Farabi site also discusses theoretical concepts in Persian classical music. The Turkish one contains many sound examples.
4.6 Resources for Chronology
4.6.1 Music Bibliography in the German Democratic Republic
Music Bibliography in the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR, 1949–1990) is an idiosyncratic subject but one which those engaged in music history of the later twentieth century may find compelling. The illustration accompanying this entry shows the full title of a typescript catalogue of new works (scores, writings on music theory, books, articles, and much miscellany) for the year 1975. This item can be found here.
4.6.2 Hofmeister XIX
Website: Hofmeister XIX
Database of 330,000 records from the Hofmeister Monatsberichte, 1829-1900, listing music publications of the period. Compiled by Friedrich Hofmeister and published in Leipzig by Breitkopf & Härtel. Well indexed for quick searches.
4.7 Libretto Portals
4.7.1 Corago Project
Website: Corago Project
The Corago website contains multiple indices related to the history of opera. The libretto search engine is a comprehensive tool for locating information about librettos in catalogued collections. Hyperlinks to digitized librettos (see below) are inserted as appropriate. A database of productions continues up to present times. Clicking in the top row of the results orders results according to user preferences.
Corago is a collaborative project headed by Angelo Pompilio. Institutional cooperation is provided by almost two dozen institutions in Northern Italy. The two largest libretto collections included are the Corniati-Algarotti (12,000 librettos) listed separately below and that of the Museo Internazionale e Biblioteca della Musica (11,000 librettos) in Bologna. Corago is the central search-engine for digitized libretti in the Bologna collection, but other pertinent materials can be found here.
4.7.2 Corniani-Algarotti Collection
Although the search form shows only four fields, the name field (nome) will accept almost any proper noun (surname of composer, librettist, scenographer, city, theater, etc.). Most sources are digitized and downloadable. This collection holds 9,000 libretti (in Italian) from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Some were published and used outside Italy. Most texts were for operas, but oratorio, cantata, and serenata texts can also be found.
4.7.3 Albert Schatz Collection (Library of Congress)
The Rostock music dealer Albert Schatz (1839-1910) intended to write a history of opera based on primary sources. Although this goal was not realized, the donation of his sources and notes to the Library of Congress more than a century ago (1908) has long been a valuable offline resource. Scanned copies of more than 12,000 libretti, primarily representing Italian, French, and German prints of the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, have now been placed online. The printed catalog of the collection by Oscar Sonneck is well known. Various filters can be found here.
4.7.4 VifaMusik Libretto Portal
Website: ViFaMusik Libretto Portal
The new (2014) VifaMusik Libretto Portal searches across component collections held in the Bavarian State Library (5600 items), the Frankfurt University Library, and the Library of the German Institute in Rome (1500 titles). One can search by composer, librettist, and so forth. Since the term libretto referred to any small book, texts for oratorios, cantatas, serenatas, ballets, and so forth occur in some of the constituent collections.
4.7.5 Index to Opera and Ballet Sources Online
This title index for individual works relies on aggregators (the Braidense Raccolta Drammatica, ViFaMusik, the Internet Culturale, et al.) for most of its contents. Its principal holdings are libretti. Some links to scores can also be found. The advance search tool at atom.lib.byu.edu/opbs/advanced allows one to search within individual aggregations.
5 Portals and Search Engines for Music
How does one search for musical content that cannot be located by metadata? These websites, each of which employs a different approach, will show you how.
5.1 Cantorales de la Biblioteca Nacional de Espana
This search site for individual chants found in Canorales (choir books) of Spanish libraries can be searched by text or musical incipit. (Click on the musical staff and enter at least two notes to see how the music search works.) The advanced search (Busqueda avanzada) provides a dozen fields, including feast days.
5.2 Cantus Index
Website: Cantus Index
The Cantus Index, managed at the University of Waterloo (CA), is a network of 11 international projects (as of 2016) that have adopted the data format and identifier system of the Cantus Manuscript Database. These projects are devoted the creation and distribution of electronic inventories of medieval chant manuscripts. With the Cantus Index as the “hub,” the Index provides a central catalogue of chant texts and melodies for the Office and Mass. Searches in Cantus Index of both texts and melodies return results in all partner databases. The projects currently searched include these separately listed repositories:
- Antiphonale Synopticum (Harald Buchinger, Universität Regensburg, DE)
- Cantus Manuscript Database (Debra Lacoste, University of Waterloo, CA)
- Cantus Planus in Polonia (Bartosz Izbicki, Warszawa, Poland)
- Cantus Ultimus (Ichiro Fujinaga, McGill University, Montréal, CA)
- Comparatio (Claire Maître, CNRS, Paris, FR)
- Fontes Cantus Bohemiae (Jan Koláček and David Eben, Prague, CZ)
- Gregorien.info (Inga Behrendt, xx, DE)
- Hungarian Chant Database (Gàbor Kiss, Budapest, HU)
- Musica Hispanica (Carmen Julia Guttiérez, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, ES)
- Portuguese Early Music Database (Manuel Pedro Ferreira, Lisbon, PT)
- Slovakian Early Music Database (Eva Veselovskà, Bratislava, SK)
User contributions are welcomed.
5.3 Dutch Song Database and Search Engine (Nedelandse Liederenbank)
The Dutch Song database (Nederlandse Liederenbank) lists 150,000 songs in Dutch and Flemish from the middle ages through the 20th century. It includes love songs, satirical songs, Beggar songs, psalms and other religious songs, folksongs, children's songs, holiday songs, and much else. Among the other searches supported, its melodic search engine is particularly effective.
Sources include sources for all these songs are songbooks, songsheets (broadsides), song manuscripts and fieldwork recordings. The Meertens Institute (Amsterdam) compiled the database, which is now maintained by the Centre for Documentation and Research on Dutch Song. The impetus for starting the project came from the Utrecht ensemble Camerata Trajectina, which has now donated its recordings to the website. In 2014 the project was awarded the Dutch Data Prize in Humanities and Social Sciences.
This comprehensive portal for materials in Swiss libraries serves scores, photographs, letters, pedagogical materials, and much else. The five-leaf recorder tutor (from a sixteenth-century manuscript) shown at the side represents its heterogeneity, which also extends to sixteenth-century part-books, organ tablatures, correspondence by Martin Luther, photographs of Ferruccio Busoni, and a thousand maps.
5.5 Europeana: Search Engine for European (Music) Sources
This umbrella site for European digitization projects covers a great deal besides music. To start, limit the search by an obvious word for music (musique, musica, Musik, etc.). This will give you an idea of how to further limit the search. Europeana is updated often. Among the items that should be visible are music prints, manuscripts, newspapers dedicated to music, sheet-music, audio files, etc. Since Europeana is an aggregation, it provides links back to the sponsoring libraries that hold the original sources. The site can be searched in many languages.
Gallica provides access to an enormous array of digitized materials from all periods of French history and many aspects of French musical life in addition to great quantities of non-musical material. Among its highlights are illuminated manuscripts containing the poetry (much of it set to music by Guillaume Machaut), manuscripts of the operas Francesco Cavalli composed for the wedding of Louis XIV (1660-62), a very large amount of music printed in France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and important documentation for theatrical history.
5.7 Global Chant
Website: Global Chant
Have you ever tried to identify a chant melody or to find all the settings of one text incipit? Global Chant will reduce the frustration. At the Search link you can enter the pitches on the virtual staff. Under Links you can pursue data at related sites. (Some not otherwise represented here are AISCGRE, Cantus Augusta, CURSUS, LIMVP, and Melodiarium Hymnolodicum Bohamiae.) At the Forum you can exchange information with other researchers. Jan Kolacek has developed this site in course of his graduate studies at Charles University, Prague.
5.8 The Internet Culturale
Website: Internet Culturale
An umbrella site for digitized materials in Italian libraries. The riches of Italy's collective Internet Culturale (cultural internet) are difficult to overstate. A vast span of different kinds of graphically reproduced material will be found here. All of it is accompanied by generous supplies of metadata from cataloguing records. While one may be able to find a specific item such as an opera, one may also discover on a different spoke a list of all the works in which the singer of an aria appeared. Users can create accounts to collect previous discoveries in one place.
5.9 Machaut (Mirador) Viewer
Website: Machaut (Mirador) Viewer
The International Machaut Society takes good advantage of the open-source Mirador Viewer to enable users to compare IIIF-compliant digitized images of the music and poetry of the fourteenth-century French composer Guillaume Machaut. The tool (used in many projects outside the field of music) facilitates leafing through multiple sources on a single screen. A comprehensive (flat) listing, searchable via numerous drop-down menus, integrates additional digitized sources. The Society website contains links to further materials and projects pertinent to the composer.
5.10 Munich Digital Manuscript Collection
Website: Munich Digital Library Manuscripts
The collection of digital materials grows so rapidly that any listing of individual collections within it is doomed to be incomplete. Several projects are cooperative. The historical foundation rests on the Middle Ages and Renaissance, with much emphasis is given to religious figures and documents (e.g. at Europeana Regia). A combined search engine (http://www.digital.collections.de) for all the digitized materials in the Bavarian State Library is currently under development.
Website: MusicBrainz Database
The MusicBrainz Database is an open-source reference for recordings providing relational searches for artists, releases, recordings, works, labels, and connections between them. Users can annotate, tag, and rate individual items. This open-source database is downloadable. The host MetaBrainz Foundation offers a sliding scale of memberships progressing from academic to commercial.
5.11 Open Music Library
Website: Open Music Library
Alexander Street's Open Music Music interleaves open-access and licensed-access materials (digitized scores, recordings, and basic descriptive materials) into a very large aggregation of third=party repositories. Even with restricted access to many recordings, the sheer size of the collection is impressive. As of October 2018, the aggregator reported more than 200,000 people, more than 200,000 scores, and more than 1,000,000 articles. Many circuitous paths lie beneath the numbers. Some articles are easier to locate than they would be in JSTOR or RILM, but access to the score or recording itself may be hidden behind a firewall, even in cases where a free, downloadable version is available online. Coverage is necessarily uneven. Materials under copyright are less accessible than older items, but the variety and extent of the collection merits a detail appraisal from individual users. Everyone is likely to find something of immediate use.
5.12 Peachnote Music n-Gram Viewer
Website: Peachnote n-Gram Viewer
This MIDI-based search system developed by Vladimir Vero plumbs a number of score aggregations, such as ISMLP to produce a general overview of short melodic phrases.
5.13 RISM Music Manuscript Inventory
Website: RISM Music Manuscript Inventory
This inventory of musical manuscripts in roughly 60 countries was begun in 1952. It is still growing (under the management of the Répertoire International des Sources Musicales). Coordinated cataloging in based at the RISM Zantralredaktion in Frankfurt, database management and processing at the Berlin State Library, and online implementation at the Bavarian State Library, Munich. RISM's numerous merits are easily discovered through in use. A RISM blog keeps registered users informed of current activities. RISM has working groups on most continents. Much material currently contained in RISM books will (with updating) find its way online over the coming years. Those interested in contributing to RISM's efforts may contact a local representative by looking here. Other RISM cataloguing projects are in transition to online presentations. One of them (A1: Printed anthologies of music before 1800) are now integrated in the RISM OPAC (online catalogue sited above). Several country-specific websites sited below offer alternative organizations and search tools for holdings. Some also include related materials or an expanded date range.
5.13.1 RISM France (RISM FR)
Website: [http://neuma.huma-num.fr/corpus/rism RISM France (RISM FR)
RISM France, under the direction of Laurence Decobert, is currently cataloguing music manuscripts up to 1800 in the Bibiliothèque Nationale de France. Holdings are particularly rich in works by Joseph and Michael Haydn, Chr. W. Gluck, Fr-J. Gossec, and J-Ph. Rameau. At present close to 1,350 manuscripts have been entered. Entries have links to several formats including MIDI files (and displays) of musical incipits.
5.13.2 RISM Ireland (RISM IE)
Website: [http://www.rism-ie.org/ RISM Ireland (RISM IE)
The Society of Musicology in Ireland (Eire) is the sponsor of this cataloging initiative. Its search tools are modeled on those of the UK site. At present works by 265 composers are represented. Associated collections with listings in progress include Music in the Irish Country House and Music in the National Library of Ireland.
5.13.3 RISM Switzerland (RISM CH)
Website: RISM Switzerland
The RISM Switzerland is the Swiss database of the Repertoire International des Sources Musicales (http://www.rism.info). This database contains additional material that is not listed in the international database (http://opac.rism.info), including sources from the 19th and 20th century.
5.13.4 RISM United Kingdom (RISM UK)
Website: RISM United Kingdom (RISM UK)
The United Kingdom RISM site has a number of special features: cross-links with Early Music Online; an impressive image gallery, useful for quick comparison of handwriting and paper; a lookup table for places of publication; and useful collection-level clusters of indexing. UK manuscripts were the earliest sources to be catalogued by RISM, and the depth of information reflects almost 50 years of accrual.
5.13.5 Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts
Website: Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts
This project of the Schoenberg Institute of Manuscript Studies at the University of Pennsylvania is for medieval studies what RISM is for music studies: It provides a comprehensive inventory of manuscripts up to the year 1600. Listings can currently be focused on any of 26 categories of description including date, place, language, library, provenance, liturgical use, vendor, artist, and many physical descriptors. Within each category searches can be narrowed by the same and similar terms. Although many of the items of musical relevance listed here may appear in DIAMM and other inventories, much of the information appears to be complementary. Although no links to digitized sources are given, the database has the inherent value of providing a rapid impression of the prevalence and/or spread of certain kinds of materials. As one example, almost 15,000 Books of Hours are listed. The advanced search feature is elegantly articulated to support with myriad text and numeric search combinations. The beta version has been online since August 2016. Periodic uploads are planned.
The Single Interface for Music Score Searching and Analysis project (SIMSSA), based at McGill University, is teaching computers to recognize the musical symbols in digital images of musical scores. Scans of music prints and manuscripts are processed, and their contents (both text and music) are entered into a searchable format that can be studied, analyzed, and performed. Projects include Cantus Ultimus, the searchable Liber Usualis, and Elvis- the Electronic Locator of Vertical Interval Successions (ELVIS).
5.15 Themefinder: Music-Incipit Search
The Themefinder search engine was prototyped at CCARH in 1996 by David Huron, Andreas Kornstädt, and Walter B. Hewlett. A large number of Stanford University students including Unjung Kim and Leigh VanHandel plus visiting students including Bret Aarden participated in its early development. The search engine was originally developed to study user behavior. Over the intervening years it has been used for a large statistical study of search-efficiency. The current search engine was built and is maintained by Craig Stuart Sapp.
Themefinder contains several repertories, most of which are publicly viewable and searchable. The principal repertories are Folk, Classical, and Renaissance. Although more than 100,000 incipits and associated metadata are present in the database, users may select just one. "Hits" satisfying search-criteria can be collected on the Themefinder Clipboard and can be exported.
Incipits can be searched at five points on a continuing from the most specific to the fuzziest. Filter for meter, mode, and key may be used. MIDI files are available for each entry. Help menus are available at the website. Those interested in contributing an encoded repertory to Themefinder should describe the existing repertory and format in a query letter.
Related literature: "Search-Effectiveness Measures for Symbolic Music Queries in Very Large Databases" (Craig Stuart Sapp, Yi-Wen Liu, and Eleanor Selfridge-Field, ISMIR Proceedings 2004)
5.16 World Digital Library
Website: World Digital Library
This UNESCO-sponsored listing of digitized sources includes a number of significant musical works in single-item digitizations. The first chorus of Euripedes' Orestes (408 BCE, from the Austrian National Library) represents the oldest contribution found here. Although the source is necessarily deteriorated, vocal and instrumental symbols are found within it.
Other WDL holdings include numerous sacred vocal works from the Ars Nova and Renaissance, German operettas, and twentieth-century sheet music. Other highlights include more than 2,700 historical maps from all parts of the world, a handful of treatises on music and music theory (including later colored drawings of St. Jerome's "Instruments of Hieronymous" (before 420 CE) and a seventeenth-century manual on the Chinese zither (quin).
6 Resources for Music Theory
6.1 Center for the History of Music Theory and Literature
The Center for the History of Music Theory and Literature (CHTML) is a research center at the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University. It maintains several searchable archives of texts pertinent to the history of music theory. While the TML is exclusively devoted to writings in Latin from antiquity to the seventeenth century, the rise of parallel efforts for digitizing the texts of music-theoretical writings in modern languages spawned several efforts now managed at CHTML. All projects have introductions and give clearly state principles of orthography. Current projects are listed below:
- The Thesaurus Musicarum Latinarum (TML), begun in 1990 and extensively developed by Thomas Mathiesen at Indiana, with the collaboration of many scholars in the US and abroad. The TML was one of the earliest databases (probably the earliest in musicology) to be fully searchable in a single pass. Its current search page is here. Giuliano Di Bacco, who now heads the project, is at work on new digital approaches to structuring and searching the material. This lexicon of musical terminology up to c. 1600 extends to evidence of speech, literary references, music-theory manuscripts, and first lines of tracts. Founding director: Thomas Matthiesen. Current project director: Giuliano Di Bacco. 950 texts.
- The Saggi musicali italiani (SMI) contains texts in Italian from the Renaissance through the nineteenth century. Founder and project director: Andreas Giger, Louisiana State University. 33 texts to date.
- The The Traités en français sur la musique (TFM) covers the middle ages through the nineteenth century. Sources in French include items published in Belgium. Founder and director: Peter Slemon, University of Toronto. 160s texts to date.
- The Treatises on Music in English (TME) concentrates on sources from the fourteenth through eighteenth centuries. Founder and director: Peter Lefferts, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
6.2 Early Music Theory
Website: Early Music Theory
Early Music Theory subsumes the new digital edition of the works of Johannes Tinctoris. Twelve treatises are listed on the earlier Stoa site, and three are viewable.
6.3 German writings on music theory and musical institutions
Website: Writings on Music Theory
This digitized collection (176 titles) from the Bavarian State Library emphasizes works printed between 1516 (Glareanus, Basel) and 1900. It includes a number of books related to individual theaters (mainly German).
6.4 Lexicon musicum Latinum
Website: Lexicon musicum Latinum
This lexicon of musical terminology up to c. 1600 extends to evidence of speech, literary references, music-theory manuscripts, and first lines of tracts.
6.5 Monuments of Partimenti
Website: Monuments of Partimenti
Robert Gjerdingen's online website for partimenti introduces the basic approach to improvisation and composition based on suggestive figured-bass sketches that survive, according to the seminal work of Giorgio Sanguinetti's The Art of Partimento (2012), in abundance from the eighteenth century. The website is still under development, but between the materials available here and the companion site linked to the book (above), users can form an elementary notion of the practice. The Beginner's Guide and a study of the Rule of the Octave enable keyboard players to improvise music in the style of many eighteenth-century composers.
6.6 Thesaurus Musicarum Italicarum
Website: Thesaurus Musicarum Italicarum (TMI)
Frans Wiering's Thesaurus Musicarum Italicarum, which is entirely separate from the TML, represented a second incarnation of his CD-ROM encodings of all the treatises of Gioseffo Zarlino (1995). The CD offered all the musical examples as MIDI and DARMS files as well as in modern notation. Its viability was undermined by the evolution of operating systems in the early 2000s. Other works of Italian music theory from the decades following Zarlino were encoded subsequently by students at Utrecht University.
7 Historical Audio and Video
The history of performed music is a compelling interest of a growing sector of musicology. Incremental changes in the retrospective reach of copyright in the several countries that were most active in early recording activities inhibit public access to exemplars. Work proceeds nonetheless. Only sites with accessible material are listed here.
7.1 Archives Sonores CNRS
Website: Archives Sonores CNRS
This archive, within the Musée de l'Homme, holds cylinders, 78s, vinyl disks, and various other formats in use for recording since 1900. Roughly two-thirds of its 30,000 documents contain sound. Five thousands of its recordings are classified as rare. The collection is fully catalogued. The Centre de Recherche en Ethnomusicologie (CREM), established in 2009, is physically located in l’Université de Paris Ouest in Nanterre (FR).
7.2 Center for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music (CHARM Archive)
The CHARM project based at Royal Holloway College, University of London, sponsored a wide array of projects related to investigating music history entirely through recordings. The 5,000 recordings available here, which were carefully provided today to researchers under the auspices of Kings College, London. They are available in a lossless format (FLAC). Among the main categories are "house conductors", "Cortot discoveries", and "Musicians of Britain and Ireland". Recently 2,000 sides of 78 rpm records from the Kings Sound Archive have been added to the pool.
7.3 Classical Discography
Website: Classical Discography
This bibliographical database has the virtue of disclosing how many early recordings were made of the music of composers we consider to have been "rediscovered" in more recent times. It is also a worthy tool in showing changes of taste and of recording technology. Records have been culled from extensive research in record-company archives in the US and Europe, with particularly emphasis on 78 rpms not well documented elsewhere. Where company documentation is lacking, the compiler (Michael H. Gray) has consulted library catalogues and dealers' lists. Labels so far surveyed include Ariola-Eurodisc, Columbia (Europe and America), HMV (Europe and Japan), Deutsche Grammophon, RCA Victor, Philips, Telefunken/Teldec, Erato, Decca (USA and UK), Argo, Oiseau-Lyre, Vox, Westminster, Capitol, and many others. Links to Durbeck Archive (classical and choral music on LPs) and Francois Nouvion's Historical Tenors, and other parallel sites are provided.
7.4 Cylinder Preservation Project, UCSB
Website: Cylinder Preservation Project
The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California at Santa Barbara contains several spokes. A "vernacular" collection of wax cylinders made outside the confines of commercial companies number 650 items. Not all are musical. Recording was a novelty at the turn of the twentieth century, and barnyard sounds took their place beside the spoken voice, fiddles tunes, and dialogue from minstrel shows. The holding collection contains well of 3,200 cylinders, some of which are available for adoption from time to time.
7.5 DEKKMMA (Sound Archive of the Royal Museum for Central Africa)
The Royal Museum for Central Africa holds an ethnomusicological sound archive. Its digitization is the goal of this project, which is based in Brussels, the site of the Museum. The audio collections dates of the era of the Belgian Kingdom in Central Africa. Generous quantities of metadata and contextual data are being provided with the digitized recordings. At the "Find recordings" tab users can define a region by its modern designation, while in the faceted search that appears after a region is selected, on can select items by tribe, by function, and by title.
7.6 The Emile Berliner Collection, Library of Congress
Website: The Emile Berliner Collection
The inventor of the microphone and the disc recording, the legacy of Emile Berliner (1847-1929) includes 400 documents and 118 sound recordings in the Library of Congress. Like Edison, he experimented with film as well as audio recording. Digitization of this collection is in progress.
7.7 The Edison Recorded Sound Archive
Website: Edison Recorded Sound Archive
This collection, administered by the US National Park Service (Thomas Edison's lab is classified as a national historic park), holds 11,000 cylinder recordings and 38,000 disc recordings from the years 1898-1929. Some recordings have been reissued on CDs. In general users may request the copying of one recording at the time. No online access is currently provided from this site, but some materials can be found at other sites. The Archive is rich in related holdings, including black-and-white photographs of early performers (c. 5,000) and correspondence.
Three hundred forty-one silent films made by the Edison company between 1898 and 1912 can be found at the Library of Congress's Inventing Entertainment website.
7.8 The Glenn Gould Archive
Website: The Glenn Gould Archive
This tape archive (accessible via RealPlayer files) shows us the legendary pianist at work, with recordings made at home, while testing halls before concerts, and the like. Most come from 1970s and 80s.
7.9 The Global Jukebox
Website: The Global Jukebox
The heart of this project is rooted in a lifetime of song research by Alan Lomax (1915-2002). Over his long life he recorded music and interviews with folk musicians throughout the Western Hemisphere. He spent the 1950s based in London, where he assembled a multi-volume collection of "folk and primitive" music for Columbia Records. (His relocation enabled Lomax to escape the brunt of McCarthyite discrimination against prominent figures from the music world--including Aaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein. He was at various points under surveillance by Britain's MI5 and, in the US, by the CIA and the FBI. No charges were ever brought.)
In 2012 the Library of Congress agreed to make his 5,000 hours of sound recordings, 400,000 feet of film, 3,000 videotapes, and 5,000 photographs available for The Global Jukebox. Lomax has devoted the last two decades of his life to this project. In its current state the website has significant debts to long-time associates including Lomax's daughter Anna Lomax Wood and a team of specialists who provided technical support.
Using geospatial data The Global Jukebox will enable you to explore these recordings by place and by many other parameters. It is the first open-access evidence of this decades-long collection development. Under the auspices of the Association for Cultural Equity, which Lomaz founded, current researchers welcome contributions of metadata, especially song titles. An earlier collection of his work (1937) is housed at the University of Kentucky.
It was Lomax's intention to implement his work in cantometrics (1959) and choreometrics in a computer system (initiated by the musicologist Victor Grauer). Considering that 37 criteria were used for the initial version of the system, the system was highly ambitious. The richness of the detail is captured in the image above, which displays metadata, content description, rate of occurrence, and musical texture in a series of Roumanian songs. Choreometrics was pursued in collaboration with Irmgard Bartenieff and Forrestine Paulay, who were also involved in the development of Laban Notation. The implementation of choreometrics at this website accommodates 119 variables.
7.10 Historical Tenors
Website: Historical Tenors
This website contains recordings but emphasizes information about tenors from all over the world. It is indexed by name and topic, with pages dedicated to comparison of rendering by multiple singers of the same arias.
7.11 Internet Archive 78RPMs
Website: Internet Archive 78 PRMs
Recordings mastered for 78 rpms (revolutions per minute) were produced prolifically from the 1920s into the 1950s. The Internet Archive collection includes cylinder recordings and 78s. It is searchable in several ways. The download statistics shows that the most popular holdings are songs sung by Enrico Caruso, Bill Murray, Edith Piaf, and Al Jolson. Current holdings number 13,200.
7.12 The National Jukebox (US)
Website: The National Jukebox
The National Jukebox, serving selected holding of the Library of Congress in Washington DC, certainly give the flavor of recording. Much of their material comes from the Victor Company (later RCA Victor) and the Berliner Company. It currently (2014) serves more than 10,000 works but remains a work in progress. A substantial range of popular and folk songs from c. 1900 reflects the great ethnic diversity of the U.S. in that era. Yet more than half the materials were recorded in Camden, NJ (the home of the Victor Company). Users add the works they want to hear to a playlist and listen to streamed examples (the best current workable solution to rights issues). Most available holdings are from the years 1900–1930.
7.13 New Zealand Pianola Site
Website: New Zealand Pianola Site
The New Zealand Pianola website is well-known to honky-tonk enthusiasts. Through painstaking research over many years, many hundreds of piano-roll performances have been captured in MIDI files of high quality. The user interface makes searches and launching sound files simple. The music comes mainly from the years 1900–1930. Zipped packages of files can be downloaded. At last reckoning 3200 files were available.
7.14 O'Neill Cylinder Recordings
Website: O'Neill Cylinder Recordings
Cylinder recordings (32) collected by Francis O'Neill of Chicago and forming part of the Dunn Family Collection within the Ward Irish Music Archives include tunes by uilleann pipers Patsy Touhey, James Early, and Bernard Delaney, as well as fiddlers Edward Cronin and John McFadden. They constitute the earliest known aural documentation of Irish traditional music as it was performed a century ago. Their Flash presentations here provide commentary on later performances of the pieces, as they found their way onto 78rpm records and other musical media. Bibliographical references to earlier printed version are also provided. Manuscript transcriptions of the music are reproduced as available.
7.15 Player Piano (Pianola) Project, Stanford University
Website: Player Piano Project
The Player Piano Project, based in the Stanford Department of Music and Archive of Recorded Sound, investigates performance practice as captured in piano and organ roles of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The project is based on the Denis Condon Collection of Reproducing Pianos and Rolls, recently moved from Sydney (Australia) to Stanford. The collection contains 7,500 rolls, mainly for piano, and ten roll-playing instruments of diverse manufacturers (Ampico, Duo-Art, and Welty-Mignon). Cataloguing and instrument restoration are underway. Digitization methods are under development. A demo is shown in the project link above.
7.16 Russian Records
Website: Russian Records
Russian Records hosts a tremendous, actively growing collection of labels produced in Russia from 1888 until recent times. Rich metadata makes it possible to isolate selections not only by label and year but also by the intended speed of rotation of the disc and other parameters of manufacture. Associated documentation is also provided. Upward of 15,000 items (10,000+ "major label" titles; 11,000+ pre-World War II Soviet titles) are listed, and all recordings have an associated sound file. The site also includes foreign labels, cylinder recordings, experimental works, and pirated labels from Aurora (1911) to Zolphone (1905). The sound file below contains a gypsy dance ("Le Manteau de Neige") by Mark Maryanovsky, arranged by René Cloereg, with violin soloist Pepito Sanchez (Saturn label, 78 rpm, n.d.).
7.17 Silent Film Sound and Music Archive
This archive of music for silent cinema and related film technologies for research and performance was established in 2014. It includes sheet music for silent film, instruction manuals for film accompanists, and a bibliography of resources on silent-film sound and music. A search box supports access by title, date, composer, arranger, mood, and other categories pertinent to film music. SFSMA, directed by Kendra Preston Leonard, is governed by a board of leading film-music scholars. It is affiliated with the American Theater Organ Society and the Wharton Studio Museum. All items in this collection are tagged using Dublin Core metadata and are downloadable via an Open Data Commons Attribution (ODC-By) License.
7.18 Trachtman Roll Scanning
Website: Trachtman Roll Scanning
This collection of more than 8,000 piano rolls includes 2,368 that are publicly available as MIDI files. (The remainder cannot be distributed because of copyright restrictions.) The available rolls offer examples of Kansas City jazz, a significant number of classical titles (Balakirev, Brahms, Chopin, Delibes, Dvorak, Gounod, Liszt, Paderewski, Paganini, Rossini, Wagner), and substantial number of classics of ragtime and other popular styles of the early twentieth century.
7.19 ViFaMusik Audio Collections
Website: ViFaMusik Audio Collections
This aggregation of web links for recordings has several component parts: choral music, folk and fiddle tunes, and ethnic repertories from all over the world. The archive of Chinese music  labeled in Mandarin and English is one of its many unusual entities. Numerous collections include auxiliary material--photographs, videos, podcasts, and descriptive material.
7.20 The Virtual Gramophone: Canadian Historical Sound Recordings
Website: The Virtual Gramophone
The Virtual Gramophone: Canadian Historical Sound Recordings gives comprehensive coverage to the history of Canadian contributions to the gramophone repertory. The repertories it covers are diverse. They include dance music of the 1920s, Quebeçois recordings of the 20s and 30s, popular music from New Brunswick, military music in Berliner recordings sold in Montreal in the first decade of the twentieth century, and other identifiable collections. The items consist predominately of 78s 50,000 items), with some cylinders (7,000). Listeners can select either RealAudio or MP3 files (downloadable). The database can be searched by voicing, instrumentation and many other parameters.
8 Historical Maps
8.1 Africa Map
Website: Africa Map
While AfricaMap is mainly intended for modern socio-economic studies, the website includes historical maps and UNESCO World Heritage information, together with modern tribal, linguistic, and some colonization data. Some views are potentially useful for ethnomusicological and intercultural studies.
8.2 Bodleian Libraries Digital Collections (Maps)
Among the Bodleian Library's digitized holdings are a number of historical maps from the far corners of the world as known in earlier centuries. Notable ones include:
- The Selden Map of China (c. 1659), a conserved image of MS Selden supra 105.
- The Gough Map (date undetermined), based on Gough Gen. Top 16, one of the earliest maps to identify Britain, can be evaluated from the linguistic properties of place names.
8.3 British Historical Maps
Website: British Historical Maps
The National Archives (UK) hosts a large collection of maps and also has links to parallel materials with similar content.
8.4 China Historical GIS
Website: China Historical GIS
When the China Historical GIS (Graphical Information System) was founded at Harvard University in 2001, its ambition was to provide mapping coordinates and related information for more than two millennia--from 221 BCE (the time of unification) to 1911 CE (the end of the dynastic period). It collaborates with several other projects and responds to those requiring specific historical time-slices and finite geographical areas. Part of what China Historical GIS captures is the changing boundaries ("instances") of populations and linguistic groups.
Georeferencer is commercial software that is heavily used by research libraries to facilitate the overlay of scanned maps with modern identifications. The links above shows an application used by the British Library. Details of subscription options for individual researchers are shown here. It is useful for comparing maps of the same places in different historical timeframes.
8.6 Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
Website: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
Anyone who has to reconcile place names on maps with place names in literary or historical sources (including composer biographers, opera libretti, and ordinary literature in battle-weary countries) will know the problem of names that are not the same. This Thesaurus of Geographic Names goes a long way in filling the gap. Since the TGN continues to evolve, please read the help guide and explore the hierarchy display before using the search box.
8.7 Munich Digitalization Center (Maps)
This collection of almost 3,000 early maps ranges in date from 1500 to the early twentieth century. It covers all of Europe and beyond with a primary concentration on areas lying today in Germany, Austria, and the Low Countries.
8.8 Old Maps Online
Website: Old Maps Online (OMO)
Old Maps Online contains more than 400,000 maps. A collaboration of many national libraries, the project is currently maintained by volunteers in cooperation on the framework originally developed by Klokan Technologies GmbH. OMO accepts contributions of old maps. It includes atlases, globes, topographical maps, and other geographic paraphernalia. The graphical engine is designed to accommodate geo-referenced overlays on modern maps.
8.9 Pelagios (Graeco-Roman Antiquity)
Website: Pelagios (Graeco-Roman Antiquity)
The Pelagios Project is an open framework for studies of antiquity. Its searchable digital map is invaluable for places that are rendered differently on modern maps. Plays and opera plots situated in Antiquity can be decoded quickly in the Graeco-Roman map shown here. Monuments, institutions, and roads are identified on the "Details" screen. Many additional sites (some related to Pelagios, some independent) exist elsewhere. We list a few here:
- Antiquity à la carte (University of North Carolina)
- Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilization (Harvard University)
8.10 David Rumsey Map Collection (Stanford University)
Contents: Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century maps of the Americas. All maps are geo-encoded to facilitate geospatial and past-time applications.
8.11 Perry-Castañeda Historical Maps (University of Texas)
Website: Perry-Castañeda Historical Maps
Notable for its spatial and historical spread as well as the detail with which the maps are specified chronologically. Many sources are scanned from maps printed in then nineteenth (or earlier) century. The link to Historical Maps on other Websites is comprehensive.
9 Early Newspapers
9.1 ANNO: Austrian Newspapers Online
The ANNO collection of newspapers initially focused on collections found in Vienna and focused on nearby portions of the former Austrian Empire, but it has recently added significant quantities of materials from the extended reaches of the wider historical precincts of the Empire. One may find reproductions of the news from the Czech Republic and Moravia as well as issues from Bulgaria and other points east. These additions mainly date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Newspapers were published in Austria on Wednesdays and Saturdays, but like printed aggregations everywhere they incorporated reports from elsewhere as the news was received. (In most cases it was re-reported within two weeks.) Readers will be grateful for the calendars that introduce each year of the collection (e.g. for 1705) and also for the thumbnails of each page of every issue. Almost a century (1606–1703) remains to be added. The overall range of the Austrian materials is from 1568 to today, but for the earliest decades see the Fuggerzeitungen below.
9.2 "Chracas" Digitale: Il Diario di Roma
Website: Chracas Digitale
This "diary" of news flowing into Rome from all over Europe was introduced as the Diario d'Ungheria [the Diary of Hungary] in 1716. It followed the earlier pattern of weekly avvisi that reported military news. That model was soon replaced (1718) by the more culturally oriented Diario ordinario. Under this title it rapidly gained readership. By 1721 it was publishing three issues a week. Most contain 12 pages. In 1799 the title changed to the Diario di Roma. Chracas remained its publisher until 1894. At present issues from 1716 to 1760 have been digitized by the Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome.
9.3 Die Fuggerzeitungen
The Fugger news dispatches of 1568–1605 (in manuscript) offer a fascinating portrait of early journalism. Placed online by the Historical Research Institute of the University of Vienna, they are viewable in several different frameworks, one of which shows geospatial aspects of news gathering and distribution. The printed ANNO series began immediately after the cessation of this series. Bibliographical details are subsumed in the Deutsche National Bibliothek.
9.4 Gazzetta di Mantova
Website: Gazzetta di Mantova
The digitized Gazzetta di Mantova (1665-1901) is a truly stupendous collection held in the Biblioteca Teresiana, Mantua. The Duchy of Mantua was rich in cultural trappings of many kinds--painting, improvised comedy, poetry, drama, sacred and secular music, and equestrian exercises. The Teresiana has also digitized its substantial Jewish holdings (28,000 items acquired from the local Hebrew community in 1930) including some works of music.
9.5 Gazzette bolognesi
Website: Gazzette Bolognesi
The printed Gazzette bolognesi have intended parallels with the Diario di Roma. Bologna was historically a papal state. It gathered the same news and valued it similarly, though occasionally with less emphasis on the affairs of cardinals. Because of larger page size the Gazzette could convey more news from more places. (The Gazzette initially had only four pages per issue.) This fully digitized series, from the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, runs from 1645 through 1796.
9.6 Historic American Newspapers
Website: Historic American Newspapers
The extensive repository of scanned newspapers (1690 to the present) in the Library of Congress is a rich resource for information that can be tied to particular place and date. At present (2017) almost 12 million pages have been scanned. A more complete search facility for identifying archived US newspapers is also available. Rich troves of biographical information and concert reviews can be found when precise delimiters are available.
9.7 Le Mercure galant
Website (1): Le Mercure galant
Many issues of Le Mercure and its analogues under various titles (Le Mercure de France et al.) can be found be searching the Bibiliothéque National's Gallica website (as above). Single installments accrue steadily but holes remain. Users must be aware of the periodical's complex history of changes and the inclusion of information that is not always accurate. A finding aid for digitized issues from 1678 to 1714 is here.
A detailed list of issues of the Mercure galant (1672-1710) with searchable diplomatic transcriptions is here. Many issues from subsequent years can be retrieved by date and title variant from Gallica.
9.8 Spanish Historical Newspaper Portal (Hemeroteca Digital)
One can filter in this search engine by the name of the series, by location, and by year (1683-2015). Few of the series listed are concerned with music or the arts, and a few that are (such as the Gaceta de Madrid) are not currently included. However, some specialized titles include the Gaceta musical de Barcelona and the Revista musical de Bilbao, both reporting on 20th-century events.
10 Music Magazines
10.1 Musical Magazines
Website: Musical Gazzettes
Almost 25,000 musical magazines published in Italy before the first world war have been digitized by the Centro internazionale di ricerca sui periodici musicali (The International Center for Research on Musical Periodicals) in Parma. Among their holdings the most prolific were Milan's Gazzetta musicale di Milano, London's Musical Standard, and Paris's Revue et gazette musicale. The best way to find them from this start site at the Internet Culturale is to use the filters for language and date of publication at the left.
10.2 The Phonographic Newspaper
Website: Phonographische Zeitschrift
The Phonographische Zeitschrift (Phonographic Newspaper) was published on poor-quality paper from 1900 to 1938. It was subtitled "a fact sheet for the music- and speech-making industry". This site is under development (2014).
10.3 Open-Access Music Journals
Website: Open-Access Music Journals
Matthew Franke's list of open-access music journals is quite comprehensive. Contributions can be sent to him at this address.
11 Large Humanities Digital Corpora
11.1 Deutsches Textarchiv
This carefully executed project aims to put the classic printed literature in German online. Its holdings are far better curated than the same titles in Google Books and other aggregation gateways. Optically recognized text is shown side-by-side with the original image. Books are categorized by century (according to date of publication). Contains dramas (Goethe), treatises (Karl Marx), autobiographies (Otto von Bismark), lyrics (Brockes, Klopstock), novels (Jean Paul), legal writings, local history, travel literature, theology, satire, and a long list of short-run early newspapers. DTA holdings are TEI-complaint. The great strengths of the DTA include its internal search, its side-by-side view of original and recognized text, and its tiered metadata structures.
11.2 Digital Libraries Gateway
This Library of Congress gateway for international projects gives an overview of collaborative projects with an American component and currently includes Brazil, France, the Netherlands, and Siberia.
11.3 Early English Books Online (EEBO)
Website: Early English Books Online (EEBO)
Early English Books Online offers a digitized image of every text published in English between 1483 and 1700. At its core it is commercial, but several universities support searches of the material. More than 60,000 texts are searchable at the University Michigan site linked above. Publication metadata are made available under the auspices of the Text Creation Partnership.
11.4 Medieval Nordic Text Archive
Website: Medieval Nordic Text Archive (MNTA)
The MNTA is a TEI-compliant collection of writings in old Scandinavian languages. It offers users an appropriate text font and an encoding manual for those who wish to collaborate.
11.5 Oxford Text Archive
Website: Oxford Text Archive (OTA)
The OTA was begun on mainframe computers with the curated encoding of texts important for the study of the languages and literatures both early and modern. Its website contains numerous links to tools and related projects.
Perseus was originally developed by Gregory Crane at Tufts University with the aim of enabling students to explore the classical literature encoded by Packard Humanities Institute and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. It subsequently expanded to incorporate many other aspects of classical civilization, including graphical explanations of textual references, as for example here. It now extends to research in other languages and later periods. Its catalogue is online. A separate digital lexicon (e.g. this one, for Arabic-English translation), is available for each one.
11.7 Packard Humanities Institute Early Texts
The Packard Humanities Institute has encoded and in some cases translated a large quantity of text from Roman antiquity and the Persian middle ages. Texts are indexed and are easily browsed and searched. Musical references are incidental.
- PHI Latin Texts (200–c 600 CE)
11.8 Rousseau Online
Website: Rousseau Online: Contents
Rousseau's writings contain countless items of interest. Here you can find the text of Pygmalion, Rousseau's Essay on Modern Music, his letters to Charles Burney and Messieur Raynal, the Dictionnaire de la Musique, and a host of miscellaneous writings from all periods of his life. The script is modern. ePub and PDF formats are both supported.
11.9 TextGrid Repository
Website: TextGrid Repository
The TextGrid Repository contains metadata concerning a wude-ranging miscellany of verse, prose, drama, and other writings. Verse is the largest category, with 118,000 items at present. The other three combined amount to roughly 66,000 items. The "grid" is formed by hyperlinked metadata. The objects themselves are in various other locations but will eventually be directly downloadable.
11.10 Théâtre classique
Website: Théâtre classique (Classic Theater)
Classic Theater is an umbrella website focused on French dramas from the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Full texts (852) in HTML, PDF, and sometimes other formats are available for the works of Thomas Corneille, Denis Diderot, Jean de La Fontaine, Pierre de Marivaux, Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin), Jean Racine, Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet), and many other dramatists. All texts are TEI-compliant. Materials can be located by place, date, author, and several other rubrics. Among its dependent sites, the Pièces des registres de la Comédie Française (1060) gives genre and exact date for the performances of the Comédie from its founding in 1680 up to the Revolution. This project is a collaboration with the Comédie Française Registers Project. It builds on the work of the the Calendrier Électronique des Spectacles sous l’Ancien Régime et sous la Révolution (listed separately under structured databases).
11.11 Text Collections Online
Website: Text Collections Online
This portal based in the United Kingdom is focused chiefly on literary and theological sources but provides a very generous number of links to well established repositories.
11.12 Thesaurus Linguae Graecae
Website: Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG)
The TLG issues from a pioneering effort to develop tools for the computerized study of ancient Greek. This effort preceded the advent of personal computer by a decade. Because of the need for special fonts, the collection is still mainly distributed on CD-ROM. An abridged version of the TLG is now online. It requires the advance download of a viewing font. The TLG website is now linked to a searchable online version of the Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon. Classicists may also note the in-progress Greek epigraphy project of the Packard Humanities Institute.
12 Image Banks
12.1 The Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music (DIAMM)
Originally a site for viewing images of rare manuscripts at various levels of resolution, DIAMM is increasingly an umbrella site for diverse projects in medieval music. The core textual database is organized by source location. Registered users may add their own comments about individual works. List and faceted search capabilities are currently being added. DIAMM now (2017) includes online registration. Some of the value in DIAMM comes from its extensive canvas of what exists (almost 50,000 item listings to date). roughly 2,000 have images, some of very high quality. Digital restoration has always been a key provision of the DIAMM mandate.
12.2 Digital Scriptorium
Website: Digital Scriptorium
This image database of medieval and renaissance manuscripts based at the University of California, Berkeley, includes holdings from many US libraries, with extensive folio-specific information about each source.
12.3.1 Emblematica Online
Website: Emblematica Online
This umbrella project serves a growing number of library-based projects, which are here cited individually. Emblem books are rich resources for those interested in decoding visual information in early printed materials. The collective site currently (April 2014) lists 636 emblem books. Searches by title, text, and image are supported. There are two component parts. (1) The Herzog August Bibliothek (HAB) Emblem Books and (2) the University of Illinois Emblem Books.
The first makes available 636 emblems books, principally from the 17th and 18th centuries. It represents only a tiny fraction of the rich holdings of the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolffenbüttel, which is particularly rich in seventeenth-century materials. August the Younger developed a three-tiered description system still in use today. Two noted figures--G. W. Leibniz (1691-1716) and G. E. Lessing (1770-1781) were later librarians. German materials are prevalent in the Illinois collection (as well as the German one).
Additional digitized emblem books from Duke University, the Getty Library, Glasgow University, and the University of Utrecht are in course of being uploaded. Each has a separate search page.
12.3.2 French Emblems at Glasgow
Website: French Emblems at Glasgow
This site hosts 27 browsable emblem books associated with 16th-century France. Eack book is linked to an alphabetical listing by author that enables rapid exploration. Some sources are bilaterally in Latin. A smaller collection of Italian emblem books is also held. This collection includes several important iconographical works by Andrea Alciati, whose influenced was substantial in France.
12.4 Iconoteca (Portraits of Musicians)
The collection of painted portraits of eighteenth-century composers and musicians that was begun by the Franciscan priest Padre Gio. Battista Martini (1706-84) attracted a much larger and more diverse repository of lithographs, photographs, and other graphical impressions of musicians and composers over time. These resources, numbering above 1,500 items, form a widely used source for printed books and concert programs. Martini also preserved more than 6,000 letters to and from musicians and others dealing with musical topics. The letters are also available online here, with corresponding numbers taken from Anne Schobelen's catalogue (New York, 1979). Through the letters it is often possible to date portraits accurately.
12.5 Index of Christian Art
Website: Index of Christian Art
One hundred twenty thousand (120,000) images from public and private collections in the English-speaking world plus additional indices; roughly 100,000 are available to the public via fee-based institutional subscriptions. Holdings from early centuries of Christianity to 1550.
12.6 Joseph Muller Collection of Music and Other Portraits
This collection of 6,422 portraits of musicians and composers, residing within the New York Public Library, was amassed by the private collector Joseph Muller (1877-1939). It is well known to those seeking illustrations for books and articles on musical subjects. Images date from the 16th to the early 20th century and include engravings, lithographs, and drawings. The collection also includes some portraits of political, literary, and intellectual figures. Prospective users will find that full citations for each item are given in several formats.
The National Library of the Czech Republic started this site to make available digital images of historical materials in its own collections and those of collaborators. its emphasis is on manuscripts, early prints, incubulae, and the like. In addition it is building research tools to support such endeavors. Manuscriptorium constitutes a subcategory of Europeana. Many of its holdings are conveyed in obsolete scripts, for which the site offers a useful character-identification lexicon called Gaiji. Its obviously later sheet-music collection has also been popular.
12.8 Medieval Legends with Music
12.8.1 The Carmina Burana
Website: The Carmina Burana
The 11th- to 12th-century collection of poetry and dramatic texts is rich in illustration and many of its texts contain cheironomic notation. Although found in a Benedictine abbey in Bavaria in 1803 and housed today in the Bavarian State Library, its origins point to compilation along the southern fringe of Austria, particularly Carinthia. Its Goliard sources come from Spain, the British Isles, France, and elsewhere in Europe. The texts are predominantly in medieval Latin, with some examples of Middle High German and Provençal. Musical settings of individual pieces are numerous following Carl Orff's 1936 presentation of 24 of the pieces (roughly one-tenth of the collection).
12.8.2 Songs of the Nibelungen
Website: Das Nibelungenlied
These poetic texts, considered to date from before 1280, display settings of the legends that inspired Richard Wagner. As is characteristic of those resources preserved for posterity in this period, the script is very carefully prepared, the vellum on which it is preserved obviously sturdy. Each Lied is illuminated by a carmine letter. The texts mention Sifriden (Siegfried), Prvnhilde (Brunhilde), Gvnther (Gunther), and others. The illustration shows the first three stanzas of "Wie Gvnther Sifriden zvo der hohzit bat" (No. 12 of 39). Later portions of the source contain religious songs (Klage).
12.9 Medieval Manuscripts Online
Website: Medieval Manuscripts Online
This list of links gives a broad international overview of the raw materials of medieval study and the heterogenity of these materials. The web interfaces are similarly varied and access to the sources is often indirect. Those who work on medieval subjects will find a lot of pick through here. There is inevitably some redundancy with several specifically musical resources listed above.
Website: Prometheus Image Database
The Prometheus Image Database is a collection of 88 separate repositories, all of which have made reproductions that are out-of-copyright freely available at sizes up to 800 x 600. (An institutional or individual sign-up with required for downloading.) Currently more than 1.5 million images relating to cultural history are viewable. The images are predominantly associated with German, French, Italian, and Dutch subjects in art and archeology, past and present media, and the history of science and technology.
12.11 PRoMS (The Production of Reading of Musical Sources)
Website: [http://proms.ac.uk/ PRoMS (The Production and Reading of Musical Sources)
PRoMS, a UK collaboration in which six institutions collaborate, is focused on the physical details of polyphonic sources originating between 1435 and 1600. It builds on resources made available by DIAMM (UK), Manuscriptorium (CZ), and holding libraries in various countries. The sources are scattered throughout Western and Central Europe (or Amiens to Zwickau in the alphabetical listing).
12.12 Watermark Databases
Watermark examination provides a fundamental (analogue) method of sorting and ordering materials that are undated or lack a provenance. They are especially useful for clustering manuscripts by paper type. The combination of digital photography and tools for photographic editing can be combined with extensive existing research on paper-makers to shed new light on musical sources. The sites listed here include watermarks associated specifically with music manuscripts.
12.12.1 The Bernstein Project
Website: The Bernstein Project
The Bernstein Project is a portal currently offering 220,000 watermarks. Forming part of the EU [http://www.memoryofpaper.eu:8080/BernsteinPortal/appl_start.disp Memory of Paper] project, the website provides links to dozens of other websites with information and images of watermarks used from the middle ages onward. Relationships to music manuscripts must usually be determined by the user, but see WZIS below.
12.12.2 WILC: Watermarks in Incuabula printed in the Low Countries
Many early printing presses operated in the Low Countries. This database lists more than 2,000 of them. It contains large numbers of beta radiographs from incunabla and forms part of the Bernstein project listed separately.
12.12.3 WZIS: Watermark Information System
The WZIS is a project of extensive scope. Its goal is to compile a graphical database of watermarks used throughout Europe. The project is based at the Landesarchiv of Baden-Württemberg. A graphical watermark lexicon called Piccard is under development at the Stuttgart Hauptstaatsarchiv. Related lexicons of makers and mills have also been developed. A textual search form is also available. Although we are aware of many other digital collections of watermarks, this one stands out for its tight coupling with music manuscripts, particularly in the large collections of the Berlin and Dresden state libraries, which are in turn linked to the RISM OPAC.
13.1 Case Law: Fair Use Index (US)
Website: Fair Use Index (US)
The searchable Fair Use Index, operated by the U.S. Copyright Office, provides open access to judicial decisions under the U.S. provision for fair use, which is intentionally vague. Users may concentrate of decisions concerning diverse media and gain a notion of variably between different circuits (districts of the US).
13.2 Music Copyright Infringement Resource
Charles Cronin's Music Copyright Infringement Resource, hosted by the Grould School of Law at the University of Southern California, enables anyone interested in music plagiarism and the grounds on which infringement cases are argued, to review arguments, decisions, and supporting media (page snippets and corresponding MIDI files). Cases from 1844 to the present are reviewed.
2014, 2015, 2017 Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities, an affiliate of the Packard Humanities Institute, at Stanford University. Compilation and brief explanations are mainly by Eleanor Selfridge-Field with contributions by many colleagues, especially including Ilias Chrissochoidis; Giuliano Di Bacco, Debra Lacoste, Liza Vick, Jennifer Ward, and project developers; design and technical implementation by Craig Stuart Sapp. DRM emphasizes open-access repositories. Music libraries offer excellent links for licensed-access materials. Persistent URLs have been used where available. To report errors please use this link. Version 1.1.