Difference between revisions of "MuseData: Johann Sebastian Bach"

From CCARH Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(131 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 3: Line 3:
  
 
=== Cantatas ===
 
=== Cantatas ===
 +
 +
Bach's sacred cantatas are among his most treasured and ample groups of pieces.  They come predominately from his first years in Leipzig (1723-1750).  The main movement types are arias, duos, and choruses, interleaved with recitatives. Instrumentation varies according to the text: Bach lived in a time of many conventions associating specific instruments with attitudes and emotions such as grief and joy but also triumph, sorrow, contrition, and so forth. 
 +
 +
====Cantatas Nos. 1-10 (BWV 1-10)====
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-!!
 +
! Item No. !! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Score 
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1 || Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern || BWV 1 || SATB || 2Hn, 2ObdC; 2VnPr, 2Vn, Va, Bc || G Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0001&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%201:%20Wie%20sch%C3%B6n%20leuchtet%20der%20Morgenstern%20(BWV%201)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Walter%20B.%20Hewlett,%20eds.&R3=BWV%201 BWV 1]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2 || Ach Gott, von Himmel sieh darein || BWV 2 || SATB || 4Trb, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || F Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0002alt&L1=(C)%201991,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%202:%20Ach%20Gott,%20von%20Himmel%20sieh%20darein%20(BWV%202)%20(alt)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Walter%20B.%20Hewlett,%20eds.&R3=BWV%202alt BWV 2]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3 || Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid || BWV 3 || SATB || 2ObdA; 2Vn, Va, Bc || A Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0003alt&L1=(C)%201991,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%203:%20Ach%20Gott,%20wie%20manches%20Herzeleid%20(BWV%203)%20(alt)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C. BWV 3]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4 || Christ lag in Todesbanden || BWV 4 || SATB || Crn, 3Trb; 2Vn, 2Va, Bc || E Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0004alt&L1=(C)%201991,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%204:%20Christ%20lag%20in%20Todesbanden%20(BWV%204)%20(alt)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Walter%20B.%20Hewlett,%20eds.&R3=BEV%204alt BWV 4]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5 || Wo soll ich fliehen hin  || BWV 5 || SATB || 2Ob, Sl Tr; 2Vn, Va, Bc || G Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0005&L1=(C)%201991,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%205:%20Wo%20soll%20ich%20fliehen%20hin%20(BWV%205)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Walter%20B.%20Hewlett,%20eds.&R3=BWV%205 BWV 5]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6 || Bleib bei uns, denn es will Abend werden || BWV 6 || Example || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7 || Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kamm || BWV 7 || Example || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 8 || Liebster Gott, wenn werd ich sterben || BWV 8 || Example || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9 || Es ist das Heil uns kommen her  || BWV 9 || Example || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No 10 || Meine Seel erhebt den Herren || BWV 10 || Example || Example || Example || Example
 +
|}
 +
 +
====Cantatas Nos. 11-50 (BWV 11-50)====
 +
 +
If there is a baseline for measuring Bach's progress as a composer of cantatas, the cantata BWV 23 is it.  On 7 February 1723 Bach used it for his audition for the position of cantor at the Thomas Kirche in Leipzig. It opens with an Adagio for soprano and contralto and concludes with a robust chorus of substantial proportions. 
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Item No. !! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Score 
 +
|-
 +
| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 23 ||  Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn || BWV 23 || SATB || 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || C Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0023&L1=(C)%201996,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2023:%20Du%20wahrer%20Gott%20und%20Davids%20Sohn&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20B.%20Hewlett,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2023 BWV 23]
 +
|-
 +
| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 42 || Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats || BWV 42 || SATB || 2Ob, Fg; 2Vn, Va, Org, Bc  || F# Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0042&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2042:%20Am%20Abend%20aber%20desselbigen%20Sabbats&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2042 BWV 42]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 43 || Gott fähret auf mit Jauchzen || BWV 43 || SATB || 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || G Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0043&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No%2043:%20Gott%20f%C3%A4hret%20auf%20mit%20Jauchzen&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2043 BWV 43]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 44 || Sie werden euch in den Bann tun || BWV 44 || SATB || 2Ob, Fg; 2Vn, Va, Bc || Bb Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0044&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2044:%20Sie%20werden%20euch%20in%20den%20Bann%20tun&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2044 BWV 44]
 +
|-
 +
|No. 45 || Es ist dir gesagt, Mensch, was gut ist || BWV 45 || SATB || 2Fl, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || E Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0045&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2045:%20Es%20ist%20dir%20gesagt,%20Mensch,%20was%20gut%20ist&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2045 BWV 45]
 +
|-
 +
|No. 46 || Schauet doch und sehet, ob irgend ein Schmerz sei || BWV 46 || SATB || 2Fl, Tr, 2ObdC; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Minor  || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0046&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2046:%20Schauet%20doch%20und%20sehet,%20ob%20irgend%20ein%20Schmerz%20sei&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2046 BWV 46]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 47 || Wer sich selbst erhöhet, der soll erniedriget werden || BWV 47 || SATB || 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc  || G Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0047&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2047:%20Wer%20sich%20selbst%20erhoehet,%20der%20soll%20erniedriget%20werden&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2047 BWV 47]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 48 || Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen || BWV 48 || SATB || Tr, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || G Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0047&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No.%2047:%20Wer%20sich%20selbst%20erhoehet,%20der%20soll%20erniedriget%20werden&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2047 BWV 48]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 49 || Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen || BWV 49 || SATB || ObdA; 2Vn, Va, Org, Bc || E Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0049&L1=(C)%201994,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Cantata%20No%2049:%20Ich%20geh%20und%20suche%20mit%20Verlangen&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%2049 BWV 49]
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
====Performing editions of Bach cantatas by Craig Smith (Emmanuel Music)====
 +
 +
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craig_Smith_(conductor) Craig Smith] (1947-2007), the founder of the ensemble [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanuel_Music Emmanuel Music] in Boston, was perhaps the most devoted conductor of the genre active in the U.S.  The editions appearing in the table below reflect his ideas about how the pieces should be performed.  These editions were made by CCARH in cooperation with the conductor.
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Catalogue No. !! Title !! Voices !! Instruments !! Score !! Choral score !! Parts
 +
|-
 +
| BWV 135 || Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder || SATB || Example ||  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| BWV 136 || Example || SATB || Example ||  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| Example || Example || Example || Example ||  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| Example || Example || Example || Example ||  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| Example || Example || Example || Example ||  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
===Motets===
 
===Motets===
  
Bach's six motets are well known to choirs and choral groups.  Each one was composed and performed for a funeral or memorial service. Each reflects on the personal relationship between the recently deceased and God by proclaiming joy at the imminent reunion with Him in Heaven. Nos. 4 and 6 are thought to have been composed during Bach's Weimar period (1708-1717), the remainder subsequently. The others were composed between 1723 and 1732, during Bach's long tenure in Leipzig.  Opinions vary on the question of two additions motets ("Ich lasse dich nicht," BWV Anh. 159, and "Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt, BWV 160) are partly by Bach or entirely by other members of his family.  Although some motets were composed for funeral services, others may have been performed at festive celebrations.   
+
Bach's six motets are well known to choirs and choral groups.  Each one was composed and performed for a funeral or memorial service. Each reflects on the personal relationship between the recently deceased and God by proclaiming joy at the imminent reunion with Him in Heaven. Nos. 4 and 6 are thought to have been composed during Bach's Weimar period (1708-1717), the remainder subsequently. These were composed between 1723 and 1732, during Bach's long tenure in Leipzig.  Opinions vary on the question of whether two additions motets ("Ich lasse dich nicht," BWV Anh. 159, and "Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt," BWV 160) are partly by Bach or entirely by other members of his family.  Although some motets were composed for funeral services, others may have been performed at festive celebrations.   
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
! Work No. !! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Genre/voices !! Score
+
! Work No. !! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Voices !! Score
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1 || Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied || BWV 225 || Motet/SATB, SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0225&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20225 BWV 225]
+
| No. 1 || Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied || BWV 225 || SATB, SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0225&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20225 BWV 225]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 2 || Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf || BWV 226 || Motet/SATB, SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0226&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20226 BWV 226]
+
| No. 2 || Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf || BWV 226 || SATB, SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0226&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20226 BWV 226]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 3 || Jesu, meine Freude || BWV 227 || Motet/SSATB || Example
+
| No. 3 || Jesu, meine Freude || BWV 227 || SSATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0227&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Motet%20No.%203:%20Jesu,%20meine%20Freude%20(BWV%20227)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20227 BWV 227]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 4 || Fürchte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir || BWV 228 || Motet/SATB, SATB, insts. || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0228&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20228 BWV 228]
+
| No. 4 || Fürchte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir || BWV 228 || SATB, SATB, insts. || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0228&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20228 BWV 228]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 5 || Komm, Jesu, komm || BWV 229 || Motet/SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0229-mvmt1&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20229 BWV 229]
+
| No. 5 || Komm, Jesu, komm || BWV 229 || SATB || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0229-mvmt1&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20229 BWV 229]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 6 || Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden || BWV 230 || Motet/SATB, BC || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0230&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20230 BWV 230]
+
| No. 6 || Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden || BWV 230 || SATB, Bc || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv0230&L1=(C)%201990,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Six%20Motets&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.&R3=BWV%20230 BWV 230]
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 28: Line 109:
  
 
==== The B-Minor Mass (BWV 232) ====
 
==== The B-Minor Mass (BWV 232) ====
Bach's B-Minor Mass was assembled in bits and pieces. Like the building of a great cathedral, its overall structure and content may not have been appreciated by those who perceived only few gargoyles or saw one strained-glass window. In its entirety it was a colossus of its own kind. It was difficult to comprehend. It required a long acquaintance to absorb its dimensions, angles, and superstructures.
+
Bach's B-Minor Mass was assembled in bits and pieces. Like the building of a great cathedral, its overall structure and content may not have been appreciated by those who perceived only a few gargoyles or saw one stained-glass window. In its entirety it was a colossus of its own kind. It was difficult to comprehend. It required a long acquaintance to absorb its dimensions, angles, and superstructures.
 +
 
 +
=====Historical and cultural background=====
 +
Bach presented his first setting of the Kyrie and Gloria to Friedrich August II, Elector of Saxony, soon after his ascension in 1733.  The Saxon court had converted to Catholicism in 1697, partly to facilitate an eventual link to the Polish throne, and the new duke also served as Augustus III of Poland. With his Thuringian origins, Bach served Leipzig's Thomas-Schule (from 1723 until his death in 1750) with the strict devotion characteristic of Lutheranism of the time. Bach was born under the shadow of the Wartburg, where Martin Luther translated the Greek New Testament into the German vernacular.
 +
 
 +
Elsewhere at the time the idea of a devout Protestant composing an elaborate Catholic mass would have presented many conflicts of ideology and interpretation, but Bach transcended those conflicts by allowing art to guide him through the process. Bach expanded the Credo and completed the remaining sections of the mass in 1748 and 1749. In its fullest form the B-Minor Mass became a resume of the composer's earlier activities, as it threaded elements of cantatas from his Weimar period into the fabric.  Bach never felt his compositions were "perfect enough," and in recycling their remnants he also sought to improve them.  In the end, the B-Minor Mass stands as an epitome of Bach's musical career.  In some accounts Bach's goals went further still by embedding elements of the <i>stile antico</i> and Renaissance polyphony into his <i>magnum opus</i>.
 +
 
 +
=====Liturgical structure and musical specifications=====
 +
 
 +
Musically, the B-Minor Mass relies heavily on choral numbers, predominately for five voices (SSATB). (A point of controversy in recent years has been the question of whether these parts were sung exclusively, in Bach's presence, by soloists, by a chorus, or by a combination of the two.) Familiar and uncommon instruments are arrayed as appropriate. Overall, the timbre varies from one piece to the next. The elements of an ordinary mass are all present, but Bach has grouped them in his own way.  What he calls the Missa (Mass) consists of the Kyrie and the Gloria.  In keeping with the practice of other composers of his time, Bach makes each line of text the subject of a separate movement. Departing from tradition, he calls the Credo section (with its many separate pieces) the Symbolum Nicenum (in parallel with the English term Nicene Creed). The Sanctus constitutes the third section. The fourth section consists of the Hosannah, Benedictus, Agnus Dei, and the benediction, Dona nobis pacem.  We divide the score below into Bach's four-sectional format.
 +
 
 +
======<b>1. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Kyrie and Gloria)</b>======
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Item number !! Title/text(s) !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Notes !! Score !!
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1 || Kyrie eleison I || SSATB || 2Fl, 2ObdA, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc || B Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv232-kyrie1&L1=(C)%201990,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Masses&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Missa--Kyrie eleison I]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2 || Christe eleison || SS || 2Vn, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv232-Christe&L1=(C)%201990,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Masses&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Missa--Christe eleison]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3 || Kyrie eleison 2 || SATB || 2Fl, 2ObdA, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc || F# Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv2232-Kyrie2&L1=(C)%201990,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Masses&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Missa--Kyrie eleison II]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4 || Gloria; Et in terra pax || SSATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Gloria&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Gloria]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5 || Laudamus te || S2 || Example || A Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Laudamus_te&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Laudamus te]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6 || Gratias agimus tibi || SATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Gratias_agimus&L1=(C)%201990,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Masses&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Gratias agimus]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7a || Domine Deus || ST || Fl; 2Vn, Va, Bc  || G Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach_bwv232-Domine_Deus&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Setven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Domine Deus]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7b || Qui tollis peccata mundi || SATB || 2Fl; 2Vn, Va, Bc || F# Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Qui_tollis&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Qui tollis peccata mundi ]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 8 || Qui sedes || A || ObdA; 2V, Va, Bc || B Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Qui_sedes&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Qui sedes]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9a || Quoniam tu solus sanctus || B || Hn, 2Bn, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Quoniam_tu_solus&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Quoniam tu solus sanctus]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9b || Cum sancto spiritu || SSATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Cum_sancto_spiritu&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Cum sancto spiritu]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
======<b>2. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Credo (Symbolum Nicenum)</b>======
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Item number !! Title/text !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Notes !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| No. 10 || Credo in unum Deum || SSATB || 2Vn, Bc || A Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Credo_in_unum_DeumL1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Credo in unum Deum]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 11 || Patrem omnipotentem || SATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Patrem_onipotentem&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Patrem omnipotentem]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 12 || Et in unum Dominum || SA || 2Vn, Bc || G Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Et_in_unum_Dominum&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Et in unum Dominum]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 13 || Et incarnatus est || SSATB || 2ObdA, 2Vn, Va, Bc || B Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Et_incarnatus_est&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Et incarnatus est]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 14 || Crucifixus || SATB || 2Fl, 2Vn, Va, Bc || E Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Crucifixus&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Crucifixus]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 15 || Et resurrexit || SSATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Et_resurrexit&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Et resurrexit]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 16 || Et in Spiritum Sanctum || B || 2ObdA || A Major || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 17 || Confiteor || SSATB || Example || F# Minor || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 18 || Et expecto || SSATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Confiteor-b&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Et expecto]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
======<b>3. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Sanctus</b>======
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! No.  !! Title !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Notes !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| No. 19 || Sanctus || SSATB || 3Tr, Timp; 3Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Sanctus&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Sanctus]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
======<b>4. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Osanna, Benedictus; Agnus Dei, Dona nobis pacem</b>======
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Item number !! Title/text !! Voices !! Instruments !! Key !! Notes !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| No. 20 (22) || Osanna || SATB, SATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Osanna1&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Osannna]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 21 || Benedictus || T || Vn, Bc || B Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Benedictus&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Benedictus]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 23 || Agnus Dei || A || 2Vn, Bc || G Minor || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Agnus_Dei&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Agnus Dei]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 24 || Dona nobis pacem || SATB || 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || Example || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bach-bwv232-Dona_nobis_pacem&L1=(C)%201994,%202010%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20B-Minor%20Mass%20(BWV%20232)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20C.%20Rasmussen,%20Edmund%20Correia,%20%20Jr.,%20eds.&R3=BWV%20232 BWV 232: Dona nobis pacem]
 +
 
 +
|}
  
 
==Orchestral Works==
 
==Orchestral Works==
Line 34: Line 202:
 
=== Brandenburg Concertos ===
 
=== Brandenburg Concertos ===
  
Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos are demonstrations par excellence of both virtuosity and interplay between most of instruments available to Bach's time in Thuringia, where Bach was raised and held all his posts prior to moving to Leipzig in 1723.  He composed them while living in Cöthen, which offered few of the resources required here but may have prompted Bach to show how many different combinations of sounds could be found in the broader palette of sonorities in use within a day's travel from the court.   
+
Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos are demonstrations par excellence of both virtuosity and interplay between most of instruments available in Bach's time in Thuringia, where Bach was raised and held all his posts prior to moving to Leipzig in 1723.  He composed them while living in Cöthen, which offered few of the resources required here but may have prompted Bach to show how many different combinations of sounds could be found in the broader palette of sonorities in use within a day's travel from the court.   
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
Line 40: Line 208:
 
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instruments [[Instrument abbreviations | ? ]] !! Key !! Score (PDF) !! Concordances
 
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instruments [[Instrument abbreviations | ? ]] !! Key !! Score (PDF) !! Concordances
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1 || BWV 1046 || Concerto / 2 Hn, Ob, Bn; VPiccolo, 2V, Va, Vc, Vne Gr, Cem || F Major ||  || BWV 1046/3 = BWV 207a/1.  BWV 1046/7 = BWV 207a/5a.   
+
| No. 1 || BWV 1046 || Concerto / 2Hn, Ob, Bn; VPiccolo, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || F Major ||  || BWV 1046/3 = BWV 207a/1.  BWV 1046/7 = BWV 207a/5a.   
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1a || BWV 1046a || Concerto / 2 Hn, 3 Ob, Bn; 2V, Va, Vc, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1046a.pdf BWV 1046a] || BWV 1046a/1 = BWV 52/1
+
| No. 1a || BWV 1046a || Concerto / 2Hn, 3Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1046a.pdf BWV 1046a] || BWV 1046a/1 = BWV 52/1
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 2 || BWV 1047 || Concerto / Tr, Rec, Ob, Vn; 2V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1047.pdf BWV 1047] ||  
+
| No. 2 || BWV 1047 || Concerto / Tr, Rec, Ob, VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1047.pdf BWV 1047] ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 3 || BWV 1048 || Concerto / 3V, 3Va, 3Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1048.pdf BWV 1048] || BWV 1048/1 = BWV 174/1
+
| No. 3 || BWV 1048 || Concerto / 3Vn, 3Va, 3Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1048.pdf BWV 1048] || BWV 1048/1 = BWV 174/1
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 4 || BWV 1049 || Concerto / VPr, Rec, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1048.pdf BWV 1049] || BWV 1049 = BWV 1057
+
| No. 4 || BWV 1049 || Concerto / VnPr, Rec; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1049.pdf BWV 1049] || BWV 1049 = BWV 1057
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 5 || BWV 1050 || Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || D Major ||  ||  
+
| No. 5 || BWV 1050 || Concerto / Fl, VnPr, Cem concertato; Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || D Major ||  ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 5a || BWV 1050a || Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vne || D Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1050a_correct_version.pdf BWV 1050a]  ||  
+
| No. 5a || BWV 1050a || Concerto / Fl, VnPr, Cem concertato; Vn, Va, Vne || D Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1050a_correct_version.pdf BWV 1050a]  ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| No. 6 || BWV 1051 || Concerto / 2Va, 2Va da gamba, Vc, Vne, Cem || B{{music|flat}} Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1051.pdf BWV 1051] ||  
 
| No. 6 || BWV 1051 || Concerto / 2Va, 2Va da gamba, Vc, Vne, Cem || B{{music|flat}} Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1051.pdf BWV 1051] ||  
Line 65: Line 233:
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Genre/instrumentation !! Key !! Notes !! Score
+
! Title !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instruments !! Key !! Notes !! Score
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1 || BWV 1041 || Concerto/ || A Minor ||  || E[https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1041&L1=(C)%201993,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Miscellaneous%20Orchestral%20Works&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rassmussen&R3=BWV%201041 BWV 1041, 1st movement]
+
| No. 1 || BWV 1041 || Concerto / VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Bc || A Minor ||  || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1041&L1=(C)%201993,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Miscellaneous%20Orchestral%20Works&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rassmussen&R3=BWV%201041 BWV 1041, 1st movement]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 2 || BWV 1042 || Concerto/ || E Major ||  || Example
+
| No. 2 || BWV 1042 || Concerto / || E Major ||  || Example
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 3 || BWV 1043 || Concerto/2VPr; VV Va BC || D Minor ||  || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1041&L1=(C)%201993,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Miscellaneous%20Orchestral%20Works&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rassmussen&R3=BWV%201041 BWV 1043]
+
| No. 3 || BWV 1043 || Concerto / 2VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Minor ||  || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1041&L1=(C)%201993,%202002%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Miscellaneous%20Orchestral%20Works&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rassmussen&R3=BWV%201041 BWV 1043]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 4 || BWV 1044 || Concerto/ || A Minor ||  || Example
+
| No. 4 || BWV 1044 || Concerto / || A Minor ||  || Example
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 5 || BWV 1045 || Sinfonia/3TrTm2Ob;VVVaBC || D Major ||  || Example
+
| No. 5 || BWV 1045 || Sinfonia / 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major ||  || Example
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 83: Line 251:
 
Bach's orchestral suites come down to our time in editions based on third-party manuscripts. Surviving parts date from c.1730-1745. Some argue that lost originals may have come from Cöthen years (1717-1723), with Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen being the intended recipient. Yet unlike the Brandenburgs, the orchestral suites were not envisaged as a set. (The attribution of a putative fifth orchestra suite, BWV 1070, is widely discredited. BWV 1071, which is effectively a suite, corresponds to BWV 1046a, the alternative version of the first Brandenburg Concerto.)
 
Bach's orchestral suites come down to our time in editions based on third-party manuscripts. Surviving parts date from c.1730-1745. Some argue that lost originals may have come from Cöthen years (1717-1723), with Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen being the intended recipient. Yet unlike the Brandenburgs, the orchestral suites were not envisaged as a set. (The attribution of a putative fifth orchestra suite, BWV 1070, is widely discredited. BWV 1071, which is effectively a suite, corresponds to BWV 1046a, the alternative version of the first Brandenburg Concerto.)
  
Each suite has a distinctly different character, each calls for an ensemble of a  different composition, and each consists of a different number and sequence of movements. The treble wind instrument in No. 2 (originally in A Minor) is variously claimed to have been an oboe or a violin, although the flute and viola parts for it are in Bach's hand on one manuscript set in Berlin. We know that Bach sometimes modified one of another aspect (e.g. key) of individual works in his instrumental collections to meld the whole into a coherent entity. This may not have been the case with the ouvertures (as the orchestral suites were originally named), but the latitude to make changes is ever-present.  
+
Each suite has a distinctly different character, each calls for an ensemble of a  different composition, and each consists of a different number and sequence of movements. The treble wind instrument in No. 2 (originally in A Minor) is variously claimed to have been an oboe or a violin, although the flute and viola parts for it are in Bach's hand on one manuscript set in Berlin. We know that Bach sometimes modified one or another aspect (e.g. key) of individual works in his instrumental collections to meld the whole into a coherent entity. This may not have been the case with the ouvertures (as the orchestral suites were originally named), but the latitude to make changes is ever-present.  
  
 
Earlier full or partial versions exist for two of the works, giving latitude to arguments for alternative instrumental choices. In the case of No. 2 (possibly the latest of the group), partisan perspectives on the principal part variously favor the violin ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Rifkin Joshua Rifkin]), the flute ([https://boyer.temple.edu/about/faculty-staff Steven Zohn]), or the oboe ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_X._Ruiz Gonsalo Ruiz]). (<i>Copy dates in the table below do not establish date of composition.</i>)  
 
Earlier full or partial versions exist for two of the works, giving latitude to arguments for alternative instrumental choices. In the case of No. 2 (possibly the latest of the group), partisan perspectives on the principal part variously favor the violin ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Rifkin Joshua Rifkin]), the flute ([https://boyer.temple.edu/about/faculty-staff Steven Zohn]), or the oboe ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_X._Ruiz Gonsalo Ruiz]). (<i>Copy dates in the table below do not establish date of composition.</i>)  
Line 91: Line 259:
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
! Movement name !! Cat. No. !! Genre / Instruments !! Key !! Earliest copy date !! Score
+
! Movement name !! Catalogue No. !! Instruments !! Key !! Earliest copy date !! Score
 
|-
 
|-
| Ouverture || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt1&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Ouverture]
+
| Ouverture || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt1&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Ouverture]
 
|-
 
|-
| Courante || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt2&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Courante]
+
| Courante || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt2&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Courante]
 
|-
 
|-
| Gavottes 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt3&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Gavottes 1, 2]
+
| Gavottes 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt3&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Gavottes 1, 2]
 
|-
 
|-
| Forlane || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt4&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Forlane]
+
| Forlane || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt4&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Forlane]
 
|-
 
|-
| Minuets 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt5&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Minuets 1, 2]
+
| Menuets 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt5&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Menuets 1, 2]
 
|-
 
|-
| Bourrées 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt6&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Bourrées 1, 2]
+
| Bourrées 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt6&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Bourrées 1, 2]
 
|-
 
|-
| Passepieds 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt7&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Passepieds 1, 2]
+
| Passepieds 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt7&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Passepieds 1, 2]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Line 138: Line 306:
 
| Ouverture || BWV 1068 || 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt1&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Ouverture]
 
| Ouverture || BWV 1068 || 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt1&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Ouverture]
 
|-
 
|-
| Air || BWV 1068 || 2Vn Va BC || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt2&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Air]
+
| Air || BWV 1068 || 2Vn, Va, Bc || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt2&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Air]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Gavottes I, II || BWV 1068 || 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt3&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Gavottes I, II]
 
| Gavottes I, II || BWV 1068 || 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || D Major || 1730 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1068-mvmt3&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201068 BWV 1068: Gavottes I, II]
Line 169: Line 337:
 
These two-movement sets for organ, despite their outward resemblance to the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Inventions, share with the orchestral suites that they span quite a stretch of Bach's lifetime. They share the two-movement arrangement but were undoubtedly composed for varied circumstances. Despite the span of years they cover, these works are set apart by the brilliance of the preludes. As assembled, they begin on consecutive tones of a pentatonic cycle--C Major (<i>c</i>1703-<i>c</i>1707), D Major (1708-1712), E Minor (1703), F Minor (<i>c</i>1712-1717), and G Minor (post-1717). (N.B. <i>Subscripts in the table below distinguish preludes and fugues sharing a BWV number.  They do not refer to other versions of the work.</i>)
 
These two-movement sets for organ, despite their outward resemblance to the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Inventions, share with the orchestral suites that they span quite a stretch of Bach's lifetime. They share the two-movement arrangement but were undoubtedly composed for varied circumstances. Despite the span of years they cover, these works are set apart by the brilliance of the preludes. As assembled, they begin on consecutive tones of a pentatonic cycle--C Major (<i>c</i>1703-<i>c</i>1707), D Major (1708-1712), E Minor (1703), F Minor (<i>c</i>1712-1717), and G Minor (post-1717). (N.B. <i>Subscripts in the table below distinguish preludes and fugues sharing a BWV number.  They do not refer to other versions of the work.</i>)
  
The first, third, and fifth of these pairs are thought to come from Bach's Arnstadt period (1703-1707), when he was serving as organist was at the Neue Kirche.  Some of Bach's best-known chorale settings are considered to come from this period.   
+
The first, third, and fifth of these pairs are thought to come from Bach's Arnstadt period (1703-1707), when he was serving as organist at the Neue Kirche.  Some of Bach's best-known chorale settings are considered to come from this period.   
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
Line 214: Line 382:
 
===Miscellaneous Works for Organ===
 
===Miscellaneous Works for Organ===
  
* Prelude in G Major (BWV 568)
+
* Prelude in G Major ([https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv568&L1=(C)%202003,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Praeludium%20in%20G%20Major%20(BWV%20568)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Frances%20Bennion,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20568 BWV 568])
  
 
Very little is known about the Prelude in G Major.   
 
Very little is known about the Prelude in G Major.   
Line 224: Line 392:
 
==Works for Harpsichord==
 
==Works for Harpsichord==
  
=== The Well-tempered Clavier ===
+
=== The Well-Tempered Clavier ===
  
Bach composed two books of 24 pairs of works in each key (major and minor) of the "well-tempered" keyboard. Each pair consists of a prelude and fugue. [https://www.britannica.com/art/equal-temperament Equal temperament], the practical virtue of which was the ability to play in any key without retuning the instrument, was emerging when Bach compiled the first book of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Well-Tempered_Clavier <i>Well-Tempered Clavier</i>]. Equal temperament, in which each named tone set equidistant (in cents) from adjacent keys, was not instantly adopted everywhere. Organs were generally tuned to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meantone_temperament meantone temperament].  Much of the music of Asia employs [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just_intonation just intonation], which requires an instrument to be retuned for the next piece, unless it is in the same key as the preceding one. Bach demonstrated the use of equal temperament by compiling this cycle of short pieces. The preludes could show off the effect of equal temperament in scale passages, while the fugues imitative processes required consonance in certain places to fulfill the work's satisfaction of the genre's requirements.
+
Bach composed two books of 24 pairs of works in each key (major and minor) of the "well-tempered" keyboard. Each pair consists of a prelude and fugue. [https://www.britannica.com/art/equal-temperament Equal temperament], the practical virtue of which was the ability to play in any key without retuning the instrument, was emerging when Bach compiled the first book of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Well-Tempered_Clavier <i>Well-Tempered Clavier</i>]. Equal temperament, in which each named tone is set equidistant (in cents) from adjacent keys, was not instantly adopted everywhere. Organs were generally tuned to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meantone_temperament meantone temperament].  Much of the music of Asia employs [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just_intonation just intonation], which requires an instrument to be retuned for the next piece, unless it is in the same key as the preceding one. Bach demonstrated the use of equal temperament by compiling this cycle of short pieces. The preludes could show off the effect of equal temperament in scale passages, while the fugues' imitative processes required consonance in certain places to fulfill the work's satisfaction of the genre's requirements.
  
 
===WTC: Book I (1722)===
 
===WTC: Book I (1722)===
Line 380: Line 548:
 
The harmonic cycle that Bach has constructed in the collection as a whole foreshadows the tonally more complete cycles of the two sets of paired preludes and fugues called the Well-Tempered Clavier. They appeared in 1722 and 1744.  It was not enough for young Friedemann to be able to play the pieces. He was being called to understand the cyclic possibilities that inhered in tonal relationships. This was a dominant focus in music theory of the time.  Johann David Heinichen's [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_fifths Circle of Fifths] was first formalized in 1711 and has remained the dominant scheme for rationalizing harmonic relations in Western music theory.
 
The harmonic cycle that Bach has constructed in the collection as a whole foreshadows the tonally more complete cycles of the two sets of paired preludes and fugues called the Well-Tempered Clavier. They appeared in 1722 and 1744.  It was not enough for young Friedemann to be able to play the pieces. He was being called to understand the cyclic possibilities that inhered in tonal relationships. This was a dominant focus in music theory of the time.  Johann David Heinichen's [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_fifths Circle of Fifths] was first formalized in 1711 and has remained the dominant scheme for rationalizing harmonic relations in Western music theory.
  
===Three-part inventions (<i>Sinfonie</i>)===
+
===Three-part Inventions (<i>Sinfonie</i>)===
The three-part inventions, or <i>sinfonie</i>, follow the same cyclical organization in the aggregate. It has been suggested that the intended relationship between the inventions and sinfonias was to be performed in pairs, like the prelude-fugue sets of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Given their shared cycle of keys, Invention 1 might be followed by Sinfonia No. 1 and so forth.
+
The three-part inventions, or <i>sinfonie</i>, follow the same cyclical organization in the aggregate. It has been suggested that the intended relationship between the inventions and sinfonias was to be performed in pairs, like the prelude-fugue sets of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Given their shared cycle of keys, Invention No. 1 might be followed by Sinfonia No. 1 and so forth.
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"

Latest revision as of 03:26, 7 April 2021

Sacred Vocal Works

Cantatas

Bach's sacred cantatas are among his most treasured and ample groups of pieces. They come predominately from his first years in Leipzig (1723-1750). The main movement types are arias, duos, and choruses, interleaved with recitatives. Instrumentation varies according to the text: Bach lived in a time of many conventions associating specific instruments with attitudes and emotions such as grief and joy but also triumph, sorrow, contrition, and so forth.

Cantatas Nos. 1-10 (BWV 1-10)

Item No. Title Catalogue No. Voices Instruments Key Score
No. 1 Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern BWV 1 SATB 2Hn, 2ObdC; 2VnPr, 2Vn, Va, Bc G Major BWV 1
No. 2 Ach Gott, von Himmel sieh darein BWV 2 SATB 4Trb, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc F Major BWV 2
No. 3 Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid BWV 3 SATB 2ObdA; 2Vn, Va, Bc A Major BWV 3
No. 4 Christ lag in Todesbanden BWV 4 SATB Crn, 3Trb; 2Vn, 2Va, Bc E Minor BWV 4
No. 5 Wo soll ich fliehen hin BWV 5 SATB 2Ob, Sl Tr; 2Vn, Va, Bc G Minor BWV 5
No. 6 Bleib bei uns, denn es will Abend werden BWV 6 Example Example Example Example
No. 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kamm BWV 7 Example Example Example Example
No. 8 Liebster Gott, wenn werd ich sterben BWV 8 Example Example Example Example
No. 9 Es ist das Heil uns kommen her BWV 9 Example Example Example Example
No 10 Meine Seel erhebt den Herren BWV 10 Example Example Example Example

Cantatas Nos. 11-50 (BWV 11-50)

If there is a baseline for measuring Bach's progress as a composer of cantatas, the cantata BWV 23 is it. On 7 February 1723 Bach used it for his audition for the position of cantor at the Thomas Kirche in Leipzig. It opens with an Adagio for soprano and contralto and concludes with a robust chorus of substantial proportions.

Item No. Title Catalogue No. Voices Instruments Key Score
Example Example Example Example Example Example
No. 23 Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn BWV 23 SATB 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc C Minor BWV 23
Example Example Example Example Example Example
No. 42 Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats BWV 42 SATB 2Ob, Fg; 2Vn, Va, Org, Bc F# Minor BWV 42
No. 43 Gott fähret auf mit Jauchzen BWV 43 SATB 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc G Major BWV 43
No. 44 Sie werden euch in den Bann tun BWV 44 SATB 2Ob, Fg; 2Vn, Va, Bc Bb Major BWV 44
No. 45 Es ist dir gesagt, Mensch, was gut ist BWV 45 SATB 2Fl, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc E Major BWV 45
No. 46 Schauet doch und sehet, ob irgend ein Schmerz sei BWV 46 SATB 2Fl, Tr, 2ObdC; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Minor BWV 46
No. 47 Wer sich selbst erhöhet, der soll erniedriget werden BWV 47 SATB 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc G Minor BWV 47
No. 48 Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen BWV 48 SATB Tr, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc G Minor BWV 48
No. 49 Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen BWV 49 SATB ObdA; 2Vn, Va, Org, Bc E Major BWV 49

Performing editions of Bach cantatas by Craig Smith (Emmanuel Music)

Craig Smith (1947-2007), the founder of the ensemble Emmanuel Music in Boston, was perhaps the most devoted conductor of the genre active in the U.S. The editions appearing in the table below reflect his ideas about how the pieces should be performed. These editions were made by CCARH in cooperation with the conductor.

Catalogue No. Title Voices Instruments Score Choral score Parts
BWV 135 Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder SATB Example
BWV 136 Example SATB Example
Example Example Example Example
Example Example Example Example
Example Example Example Example

Motets

Bach's six motets are well known to choirs and choral groups. Each one was composed and performed for a funeral or memorial service. Each reflects on the personal relationship between the recently deceased and God by proclaiming joy at the imminent reunion with Him in Heaven. Nos. 4 and 6 are thought to have been composed during Bach's Weimar period (1708-1717), the remainder subsequently. These were composed between 1723 and 1732, during Bach's long tenure in Leipzig. Opinions vary on the question of whether two additions motets ("Ich lasse dich nicht," BWV Anh. 159, and "Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt," BWV 160) are partly by Bach or entirely by other members of his family. Although some motets were composed for funeral services, others may have been performed at festive celebrations.

Work No. Title Catalogue No. Voices Score
No. 1 Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied BWV 225 SATB, SATB BWV 225
No. 2 Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf BWV 226 SATB, SATB BWV 226
No. 3 Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 SSATB BWV 227
No. 4 Fürchte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir BWV 228 SATB, SATB, insts. BWV 228
No. 5 Komm, Jesu, komm BWV 229 SATB BWV 229
No. 6 Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden BWV 230 SATB, Bc BWV 230

Masses

The B-Minor Mass (BWV 232)

Bach's B-Minor Mass was assembled in bits and pieces. Like the building of a great cathedral, its overall structure and content may not have been appreciated by those who perceived only a few gargoyles or saw one stained-glass window. In its entirety it was a colossus of its own kind. It was difficult to comprehend. It required a long acquaintance to absorb its dimensions, angles, and superstructures.

Historical and cultural background

Bach presented his first setting of the Kyrie and Gloria to Friedrich August II, Elector of Saxony, soon after his ascension in 1733. The Saxon court had converted to Catholicism in 1697, partly to facilitate an eventual link to the Polish throne, and the new duke also served as Augustus III of Poland. With his Thuringian origins, Bach served Leipzig's Thomas-Schule (from 1723 until his death in 1750) with the strict devotion characteristic of Lutheranism of the time. Bach was born under the shadow of the Wartburg, where Martin Luther translated the Greek New Testament into the German vernacular.

Elsewhere at the time the idea of a devout Protestant composing an elaborate Catholic mass would have presented many conflicts of ideology and interpretation, but Bach transcended those conflicts by allowing art to guide him through the process. Bach expanded the Credo and completed the remaining sections of the mass in 1748 and 1749. In its fullest form the B-Minor Mass became a resume of the composer's earlier activities, as it threaded elements of cantatas from his Weimar period into the fabric. Bach never felt his compositions were "perfect enough," and in recycling their remnants he also sought to improve them. In the end, the B-Minor Mass stands as an epitome of Bach's musical career. In some accounts Bach's goals went further still by embedding elements of the stile antico and Renaissance polyphony into his magnum opus.

Liturgical structure and musical specifications

Musically, the B-Minor Mass relies heavily on choral numbers, predominately for five voices (SSATB). (A point of controversy in recent years has been the question of whether these parts were sung exclusively, in Bach's presence, by soloists, by a chorus, or by a combination of the two.) Familiar and uncommon instruments are arrayed as appropriate. Overall, the timbre varies from one piece to the next. The elements of an ordinary mass are all present, but Bach has grouped them in his own way. What he calls the Missa (Mass) consists of the Kyrie and the Gloria. In keeping with the practice of other composers of his time, Bach makes each line of text the subject of a separate movement. Departing from tradition, he calls the Credo section (with its many separate pieces) the Symbolum Nicenum (in parallel with the English term Nicene Creed). The Sanctus constitutes the third section. The fourth section consists of the Hosannah, Benedictus, Agnus Dei, and the benediction, Dona nobis pacem. We divide the score below into Bach's four-sectional format.

1. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Kyrie and Gloria)
Item number Title/text(s) Voices Instruments Key Notes Score
No. 1 Kyrie eleison I SSATB 2Fl, 2ObdA, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc B Minor Example BWV 232: Missa--Kyrie eleison I
No. 2 Christe eleison SS 2Vn, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Missa--Christe eleison
No. 3 Kyrie eleison 2 SATB 2Fl, 2ObdA, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc F# Minor Example BWV 232: Missa--Kyrie eleison II
No. 4 Gloria; Et in terra pax SSATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Gloria
No. 5 Laudamus te S2 Example A Major Example BWV 232: Laudamus te
No. 6 Gratias agimus tibi SATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Gratias agimus
No. 7a Domine Deus ST Fl; 2Vn, Va, Bc G Major Example BWV 232: Domine Deus
No. 7b Qui tollis peccata mundi SATB 2Fl; 2Vn, Va, Bc F# Minor Example BWV 232: Qui tollis peccata mundi
No. 8 Qui sedes A ObdA; 2V, Va, Bc B Minor Example BWV 232: Qui sedes
No. 9a Quoniam tu solus sanctus B Hn, 2Bn, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Quoniam tu solus sanctus
No. 9b Cum sancto spiritu SSATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major BWV 232: Cum sancto spiritu
2. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Credo (Symbolum Nicenum)
Item number Title/text Voices Instruments Key Notes Score
No. 10 Credo in unum Deum SSATB 2Vn, Bc A Minor Example BWV 232: Credo in unum Deum
No. 11 Patrem omnipotentem SATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Patrem omnipotentem
No. 12 Et in unum Dominum SA 2Vn, Bc G Major Example BWV 232: Et in unum Dominum
No. 13 Et incarnatus est SSATB 2ObdA, 2Vn, Va, Bc B Minor Example BWV 232: Et incarnatus est
No. 14 Crucifixus SATB 2Fl, 2Vn, Va, Bc E Minor Example BWV 232: Crucifixus
No. 15 Et resurrexit SSATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Et resurrexit
No. 16 Et in Spiritum Sanctum B 2ObdA A Major Example Example
No. 17 Confiteor SSATB Example F# Minor Example Example
No. 18 Et expecto SSATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Et expecto
3. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Sanctus
No. Title Voices Instruments Key Notes Score
No. 19 Sanctus SSATB 3Tr, Timp; 3Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Sanctus
4. Mass in B-Minor (BWV 232): Osanna, Benedictus; Agnus Dei, Dona nobis pacem
Item number Title/text Voices Instruments Key Notes Score
No. 20 (22) Osanna SATB, SATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Osannna
No. 21 Benedictus T Vn, Bc B Minor Example BWV 232: Benedictus
No. 23 Agnus Dei A 2Vn, Bc G Minor Example BWV 232: Agnus Dei
No. 24 Dona nobis pacem SATB 3Tr, Timp; 2Fl, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example BWV 232: Dona nobis pacem

Orchestral Works

Brandenburg Concertos

Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos are demonstrations par excellence of both virtuosity and interplay between most of instruments available in Bach's time in Thuringia, where Bach was raised and held all his posts prior to moving to Leipzig in 1723. He composed them while living in Cöthen, which offered few of the resources required here but may have prompted Bach to show how many different combinations of sounds could be found in the broader palette of sonorities in use within a day's travel from the court.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instruments ? Key Score (PDF) Concordances
No. 1 BWV 1046 Concerto / 2Hn, Ob, Bn; VPiccolo, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem F Major BWV 1046/3 = BWV 207a/1. BWV 1046/7 = BWV 207a/5a.
No. 1a BWV 1046a Concerto / 2Hn, 3Ob, Bn; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cem F Major BWV 1046a BWV 1046a/1 = BWV 52/1
No. 2 BWV 1047 Concerto / Tr, Rec, Ob, VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem F Major BWV 1047
No. 3 BWV 1048 Concerto / 3Vn, 3Va, 3Vc, Vne, Cem G Major BWV 1048 BWV 1048/1 = BWV 174/1
No. 4 BWV 1049 Concerto / VnPr, Rec; 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem G Major BWV 1049 BWV 1049 = BWV 1057
No. 5 BWV 1050 Concerto / Fl, VnPr, Cem concertato; Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem D Major
No. 5a BWV 1050a Concerto / Fl, VnPr, Cem concertato; Vn, Va, Vne D Major BWV 1050a
No. 6 BWV 1051 Concerto / 2Va, 2Va da gamba, Vc, Vne, Cem B Major BWV 1051

Miscellaneous Concertos

Copies from around 1730 survive for four miscellaneous concertos by Bach. Two or more of them may have been composed earlier, during Bach's Cöthen period. They follow three-movement plans, but relatively little is known about the circumstances for which they were intended. The sinfonia, judged to come from 1743-46, is believed to be detached from a lost cantata.

BWV 1043, for two violins and strings, is one of Bach's best known and most widely played works.

Title Catalogue No. Genre / Instruments Key Notes Score
No. 1 BWV 1041 Concerto / VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Bc A Minor BWV 1041, 1st movement
No. 2 BWV 1042 Concerto / E Major Example
No. 3 BWV 1043 Concerto / 2VnPr; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Minor BWV 1043
No. 4 BWV 1044 Concerto / A Minor Example
No. 5 BWV 1045 Sinfonia / 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob; 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major Example

Orchestral Suites

Bach's orchestral suites come down to our time in editions based on third-party manuscripts. Surviving parts date from c.1730-1745. Some argue that lost originals may have come from Cöthen years (1717-1723), with Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen being the intended recipient. Yet unlike the Brandenburgs, the orchestral suites were not envisaged as a set. (The attribution of a putative fifth orchestra suite, BWV 1070, is widely discredited. BWV 1071, which is effectively a suite, corresponds to BWV 1046a, the alternative version of the first Brandenburg Concerto.)

Each suite has a distinctly different character, each calls for an ensemble of a different composition, and each consists of a different number and sequence of movements. The treble wind instrument in No. 2 (originally in A Minor) is variously claimed to have been an oboe or a violin, although the flute and viola parts for it are in Bach's hand on one manuscript set in Berlin. We know that Bach sometimes modified one or another aspect (e.g. key) of individual works in his instrumental collections to meld the whole into a coherent entity. This may not have been the case with the ouvertures (as the orchestral suites were originally named), but the latitude to make changes is ever-present.

Earlier full or partial versions exist for two of the works, giving latitude to arguments for alternative instrumental choices. In the case of No. 2 (possibly the latest of the group), partisan perspectives on the principal part variously favor the violin (Joshua Rifkin), the flute (Steven Zohn), or the oboe (Gonsalo Ruiz). (Copy dates in the table below do not establish date of composition.)

No. 1. BWV 1066

Movement name Catalogue No. Instruments Key Earliest copy date Score
Ouverture BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Ouverture
Courante BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Courante
Gavottes 1, 2 BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Gavottes 1, 2
Forlane BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Forlane
Menuets 1, 2 BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Menuets 1, 2
Bourrées 1, 2 BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Bourrées 1, 2
Passepieds 1, 2 BWV 1066 2Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Passepieds 1, 2

No. 2. BWV 1067

Movement name Catalogue no. Instruments Key Earliest copy Score
Ouverture BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Ouverture
Rondeau BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Rondeau
Sarabande BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Sarabande
Bourrées I, II BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Bourrées I, II
Polonaise BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Polonaise, Double (Based on Polish song "Wezmę ja kontusz")
Menuet BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Menuet
Badinerie BWV 1067 Fl, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor 1738-1739 BWV 1067: Badinerie

No. 3. BWV 1068

Movement name Catalogue no. Instruments Key Earliest copy Score
Ouverture BWV 1068 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1068: Ouverture
Air BWV 1068 2Vn, Va, Bc D Major 1730 BWV 1068: Air
Gavottes I, II BWV 1068 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1068: Gavottes I, II
Bourrée BWV 1068 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1068: Bourrée
Gigue BWV 1068 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1068: Gigue

No. 4. BWV 1069

Movement name Catalogue no. Instruments Key Earliest copy Score
Ouverture BWV 1069 3Tr, Timp, 3Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1069: Ouverture
Bourrées I, II BWV 1069 3Tr, Timp, 3Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1069: Bourrées I, II
Gavotte BWV 1069 3Tr, Timp, 3Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1069: Gavotte
Menuets I, II BWV 1069 3Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 BWV 1069: Menuets I, II
Réjouissance BWV 1069 3Tr, Timp, 3Ob, Bn, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major 1730 Example

Works for Organ

Preludes and Fugues for Organ (BWV 531-535)

These two-movement sets for organ, despite their outward resemblance to the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Inventions, share with the orchestral suites that they span quite a stretch of Bach's lifetime. They share the two-movement arrangement but were undoubtedly composed for varied circumstances. Despite the span of years they cover, these works are set apart by the brilliance of the preludes. As assembled, they begin on consecutive tones of a pentatonic cycle--C Major (c1703-c1707), D Major (1708-1712), E Minor (1703), F Minor (c1712-1717), and G Minor (post-1717). (N.B. Subscripts in the table below distinguish preludes and fugues sharing a BWV number. They do not refer to other versions of the work.)

The first, third, and fifth of these pairs are thought to come from Bach's Arnstadt period (1703-1707), when he was serving as organist at the Neue Kirche. Some of Bach's best-known chorale settings are considered to come from this period.

Work Number Catalogue Number Genre/instrumentation Key Score
No. 1a BWV 531a Prelude/Organ C Major BWV 531a
No. 1b BWV 531b Fugue/Organ C Major BWV 531b
No. 2a BWV 532a Prelude/Organ D Major BWV 532
No. 2b BWV 532b Fugue/Organ D Major BWV 532
No. 3a BWV 533a Prelude/Organ E Minor BWV 533a
No. 3b BWV 533b Fugue/Organ E Minor BWV 533b
No. 4a BWV 534a Prelude/Organ F Minor BWV 534a
No. 4b BWV 534b Fugue/Organ F Minor BWV 534b
No. 5a BWV 535a Prelude/Organ G Minor BWV 535a
No. 5b BWV 535b Fugue/Organ G Minor BWV 535b

Preludes and Fugues for Organ (BWV 549-551)

In this group of three sets of organ preludes and fugues the first and third seem to come from near the start of Bach's tenure in Arnstadt. The middle set is slightly later (up to 1708) but is still likely to come from Bach's first professional position. Considering that they were composed when the composer was between 18 and 20 years of age, they show his enormous promise.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre/Instrumentation Key Score
No. 1 BWV 549 Prelude & Fugue/Organ C Minor BWV 549
No. 2 BWV 550 Prelude & Fugue/Organ G Major BWV 550
No. 3 BWV 551 Prelude & Fugue/Organ A Minor BWV 551

Miscellaneous Works for Organ

Very little is known about the Prelude in G Major.

  • Prelude in A Minor (BWV 569)

Similarly little-known, this work was composed before 1717.

Works for Harpsichord

The Well-Tempered Clavier

Bach composed two books of 24 pairs of works in each key (major and minor) of the "well-tempered" keyboard. Each pair consists of a prelude and fugue. Equal temperament, the practical virtue of which was the ability to play in any key without retuning the instrument, was emerging when Bach compiled the first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Equal temperament, in which each named tone is set equidistant (in cents) from adjacent keys, was not instantly adopted everywhere. Organs were generally tuned to meantone temperament. Much of the music of Asia employs just intonation, which requires an instrument to be retuned for the next piece, unless it is in the same key as the preceding one. Bach demonstrated the use of equal temperament by compiling this cycle of short pieces. The preludes could show off the effect of equal temperament in scale passages, while the fugues' imitative processes required consonance in certain places to fulfill the work's satisfaction of the genre's requirements.

WTC: Book I (1722)

Book I of the Well-Tempered Clavier was published towards the end of Bach's tenure at the Cöthen court.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre/instrument Key Score
No. 1a BWV 846a Prelude/keyboard C Major BWV 846a
No. 1b BWV 846b Fugue/keyboard C Major BWV 846b
No. 2a BWV 847a Prelude/keyboard C Minor BWV 847a
No. 2b BWV 847b Fugue/keyboard C Minor BWV 847b
No. 3a BWV 848a Prelude/keyboard C# Major BWV 848a
No. 3b BWV 848b Fugue/keyboard C# Major BWV 848b
No. 4a BWV 849a Prelude/keyboard C# Minor BWV 849a
No. 4b BWV 849b Fugue/keyboard C# Minor BWV 849b
No. 5a BWV 850a Prelude/keyboard D Major BWV 850a
No. 5b BWV 850b Fugue/keyboard D Minor BWV 850b
No. 6a BWV 851a Prelude/keyboard D Minor BWV 851a
No. 6b BWV 851b Fugue/keyboard D Minor BWV 851b
No. 7a BWV 852a Prelude/keyboard Eb Major BWV 852a
No. 7b BWV 852b Fugue/keyboard Eb Major BWV 852b
No. 8a BWV 853a Prelude/keyboard Eb Minor BWV 853a
No. 8b BWV 853b Fugue/keyboard D# Minor BWV 853b
No. 9a BWV 854a Example Example Example
No. 9b BWV 854b Example Example Example
No. 10a BWV 855a Example Example Example
No. 10b BWV 855b Example Example Example
No. 11a BWV 856a Example Example Example
No. 11b BWV 856b Example Example Example
No. 12a BWV 857a Example Example Example
No. 12b BWV 857b Example Example Example
No. 13a BWV 858a Example Example Example
No. 13b BWV 858b Example Example Example
No. 14a BWV 859a Example Example Example
No. 14b BWV 859b Example Example Example
No. 15a BWV 860a Example Example Example
No. 15b BWV 860b Example Example Example
No. 16a BWV 861a Example Example Example
No. 16b BWV 861b Example Example Example
No. 17a BWV 862a Example Example Example
No. 17b BWV 862b Example Example Example
No. 18a BWV 863a Example Example Example
No. 18b BWV 863b Example Example Example
No. 19a BWV 864a Example Example Example
No. 19b BWV 864b Example Example Example
No. 20a BWV 865a Example Example Example
No. 20b BWV 865b Example Example Example
No. 21a BWV 866a Example Example Example
No. 21b BWV 866b Example Example Example
No. 22a BWV 867a Example Example Example
No. 22b BWV 867b Example Example Example
No. 23a BWV 868a Example Example Example
No. 23b BWV 868b Example Example Example
No. 24a BWV 869a Example Example Example
No. 24b BWV 869b Example Example Example

WTC: Book II (1742)

Two-part Inventions

J. S. Bach: Invention No. 4 [BWV 775] from the holograph manuscript, Mus.ms. Bach P 610, Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek.

Bach's two-part inventions (BWV 772-786) constituted one set of several that J. S. Bach composed for his gifted son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784). The term invention is traced to the solo violin pieces Op. 10 (1713) by Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672-1749), a Trentine composer. Bach uses the Latin title Inventio, reminding us of his command of the language, which he sometimes taught (in addition to teaching, composing, and performing music). Each three-voice work [see next section] was likewise called a Sinfonia.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instrument Key Score
No. 1 BWV 772 Invention / harpsichord C Major BWV 772
No. 1a BWV 772a Invention / harpsichord C Major
No. 2 BWV 773 Invention / harpsichord C Minor BWV 773
No. 3 BWV 774 Invention / harpsichord D Major BWV 774
No. 4 BWV 775 Invention / harpsichord D Minor BWV 775
No. 5 BWV 776 Invention / harpsichord E Major BWV 776
No. 6 BWV 777 Invention / harpsichord E Major BWV 777
No. 7 BWV 778 Invention / harpsichord E Minor BWV 778
No. 8 BWV 779 Invention / harpsichord F Major BWV 779
No. 9 BWV 780 Invention / harpsichord F Minor BWV 780
No. 10 BWV 781 Invention / harpsichord G Major BWV 781
No. 11 BWV 782 Invention / harpsichord G Minor BWV 782
No. 12 BWV 783 Invention / harpsichord A Major BWV 783
No. 13 BWV 784 Invention / harpsichord A Minor BWV 784
No. 14 BWV 785 Invention / harpsichord Bb Major BWV 785
No. 15 BWV 786 Invention / harpsichord B Minor BWV 786

The harmonic cycle that Bach has constructed in the collection as a whole foreshadows the tonally more complete cycles of the two sets of paired preludes and fugues called the Well-Tempered Clavier. They appeared in 1722 and 1744. It was not enough for young Friedemann to be able to play the pieces. He was being called to understand the cyclic possibilities that inhered in tonal relationships. This was a dominant focus in music theory of the time. Johann David Heinichen's Circle of Fifths was first formalized in 1711 and has remained the dominant scheme for rationalizing harmonic relations in Western music theory.

Three-part Inventions (Sinfonie)

The three-part inventions, or sinfonie, follow the same cyclical organization in the aggregate. It has been suggested that the intended relationship between the inventions and sinfonias was to be performed in pairs, like the prelude-fugue sets of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Given their shared cycle of keys, Invention No. 1 might be followed by Sinfonia No. 1 and so forth.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instrument Key Score
No. 1 BWV 787 Sinfonia / harpsichord C Major BWV 787
No. 2 BWV 788 Sinfonia / harpsichord C Minor BWV 788
No. 3 BWV 789 Sinfonia / harpsichord D Major BWV 789
No. 4 BWV 790 Sinfonia / harpsichord D Minor BWV 790
No. 5 BWV 791 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Major BWV 791
No. 6 BWV 792 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Major BWV 792
No. 7 BWV 793 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Minor BWV 793
No. 8 BWV 794 Sinfonia / harpsichord F Major BWV 794
No. 9 BWV 795 Sinfonia / harpsichord F Minor
No. 10 BWV 796 Sinfonia / harpsichord G Major
No. 11 BWV 797 Sinfonia / harpsichord G Minor BWV 797
No. 12 BWV 798 Sinfonia / harpsichord A Major
No. 13 BWV 799 Sinfonia / harpsichord A Minor
No. 14 BWV 800 Sinfonia / harpsichord Bb Major BWV 800
No. 15 BWV 801 Sinfonia / harpsichord B Minor