Difference between revisions of "MuseData: Johann Sebastian Bach"

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== Brandenburg Concertos ==
 
== Brandenburg Concertos ==
  
== Well-tempered Clavier ==
+
Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos are demonstrations par excellence of both virtuosity and interplay between most of instruments available to Bach's time in Thuringia, where Bach was raised and held all his posts prior to moving to Leipzig in 1723.  He composed them while living in Cöthen, which offered few of the resources required here but may have prompted Bach to show how many different combinations of sounds could be found in the broader palette of sonorities in use within a day's travel from the court. 
  
== Two- and Three-part Inventions ==
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instruments [[Instrument abbreviations | ? ]] !! Key !! Score (PDF) !! Concordances
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1 || BWV 1046 || Concerto / 2 Hn, Ob, Bn; VPiccolo, 2V, Va, Vc, Vne Gr, Cem || F Major ||  || BWV 1046/3 = BWV 207a/1.  BWV 1046/7 = BWV 207a/5a. 
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1a || BWV 1046a || Concerto / 2 Hn, 3 Ob, Bn; 2V, Va, Vc, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1046a.pdf BWV 1046a] || BWV 1046a/1 = BWV 52/1
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2 || BWV 1047 || Concerto / Tr, Rec, Ob, Vn; 2V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || F Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1047.pdf BWV 1047] ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3 || BWV 1048 || Concerto / 3V, 3Va, 3Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1048.pdf BWV 1048] || BWV 1048/1 = BWV 174/1
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4 || BWV 1049 || Concerto / VPr, Rec, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || G Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1048.pdf BWV 1049] || BWV 1049 = BWV 1057
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5 || BWV 1050 || Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem || D Major ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5a || BWV 1050a || Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vne || D Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1050a_correct_version.pdf BWV 1050a]  ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6 || BWV 1051 || Concerto / 2Va, 2Va da gamba, Vc, Vne, Cem || B{{music|flat}} Major || [http://esf.ccarh.org/MuseData-Bach-PDFs/01-bwv1051.pdf BWV 1051] ||
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Orchestral Suites==
 +
 
 +
Bach's orchestral suites come down to our time in editions based on third-party manuscripts datable to various years between 1724 and 1739. Those who have studied them recently lean to the view that, like the Brandenburgs, they were composed during Bach's Cöthen years (1717-1723) with Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen in mind. It is not clear, however, that he intended him as a set.  The attribution of a putative fifth orchestra suite, BWV 1070, is widely discredited. BWV 1071, which is effectively a suite, corresponds to BWV 1046a, the alternative version of the first Brandenburg Concerto.
 +
 
 +
Each suite has a distinctly different character and each calls for a different ensemble.  The treble wind in No. 2 is variously claimed to have been an oboe or a violin, although the flute and viola parts for it are in Bach's hand on one manuscript set in Berlin. We know that Bach sometimes modified one of another aspect (e.g. key) of individual works in his instrumental collections to meld the whole into a coherent entity. This may not have been the case with the ouvertures (as the orchestral suites were originally named), but the latitude to make changes is ever-present.
 +
 
 +
Earlier full or partial versions exist for two of the works, giving latitude to arguments for alternative instrumental choices.  In the case of No. 2 (ostensibly the latest of the group), partisan perspectives on the principal part variously favor the violin ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Rifkin Joshua Rifkin]), the flute ([https://boyer.temple.edu/about/faculty-staff Steven Zohn]), or the oboe ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_X._Ruiz Gonsalo Ruiz]). (<i>Copy dates in the table below do not establish date of composition.</i>)
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Collection, Work No. !! Cat. No. !! Genre / Instruments !! Key !! Earliest copy date !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| Orchestral Suite, No. 1 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || Example
 +
|-
 +
| Ouverture || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt1&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Ouverture]
 +
|-
 +
| Courante || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt2&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Courante]
 +
|-
 +
| Gavottes 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt3&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Gavottes 1, 2]
 +
|-
 +
| Forlane || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt4&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Forlane]
 +
|-
 +
| Minuets 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt5&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Minuets 1, 2]
 +
|-
 +
| Bourrées 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt6&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Bourrées 1, 2]
 +
|-
 +
| Passepieds 1, 2 || BWV 1066 || Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || C Major || Leipzig, 1724-1725 || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv1066-mvmt7&L1=(C)%202002,%202005%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Orchestral%20Suites&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%201066 BWV 1066: Passepieds 1, 2]
 +
|-
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| Orchestral Suite, No. 2 || BWV 1067 || Suite / Fl, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo|| B Minor || Leipzig, 1738-1739 ||
 +
|-
 +
| Orchestral Suite, No. 3 || BWV 1068 || Suite / 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo|| D Major || Leipzig, 1730 || Example
 +
|-
 +
| orchestral Suite, No. 4 || BWV 1069 || Suite / 3Tr, Timp, 3Pb, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo || D Major || Leipzig, 1730 || Example
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Works for Organ==
 +
 
 +
===Preludes and Fugues for Organ (BWV 531-535)===
 +
These two-movement sets for organ, despite their outward resemblance to the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Inventions, share with the orchestral suites that they span quite a stretch of Bach's lifetime. They share the two-movement arrangement but were undoubtedly composed for varied circumstances. Despite the span of years they cover, these works are set apart by the brilliance of the preludes. As assembled, they constitute a pentatonic cycle--C Major (c1703-c1707), D Major (1708-1712), E Minor (1703), F Minor (c1712-1717), and G Minor (post-1717). (N.B. <i>Subscripts in the table below distinguish preludes and fugues sharing a BWV number.  They do not refer to other versions of the work.</i>)
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Work Number !! Catalogue Number !! Genre/instrumentation !! Key !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1a || BWV 531a || Prelude/Organ || C Major || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1b || BWV 531b || Fugue/Organ || C Major || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2a || BWV 532a || Prelude/Organ || D Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv532&L1=(C)%201992%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20and%20Fugue%20in%20D%20Major&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20532 BWV 532]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2b || BWV 532b || Fugue/Organ || D Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv532&L1=(C)%201992%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20and%20Fugue%20in%20D%20Major&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20532 BWV 532]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3a || BWV 533a || Prelude/Organ || E Minor || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3b || BWV 533b || Fugue/Organ || E Minor || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4a || BWV 534a || Prelude/Organ || F Minor || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4b || BWV 534b || Fugue/Organ || F Minor || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5a || BWV 535a || Prelude/Organ || G Minor || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5b || BWV 535b || Fugue/Organ || G Minor || Example
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Works for Harpsichord==
 +
 
 +
=== The Well-tempered Clavier ===
 +
 
 +
Bach composed two books of 24 pairs of works in each key (major and minor) of the "well-tempered" keyboard. Each pair consists of a prelude and fugue. [https://www.britannica.com/art/equal-temperament Equal temperament], the practical virtue of which was the ability to play in any key without retuning the instrument, was emerging when Bach compiled the first book of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Well-Tempered_Clavier <i>Well-Tempered Clavier</i>]. Equal temperament, in which each named tone set equidistant (in cents) from adjacent keys, was not instantly adopted everywhere. Organs were generally tuned to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meantone_temperament meantone temperament].  Much of the music of Asia employs [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just_intonation just intonation], which requires an instrument to be retuned for the next piece, unless it is in the same key as the preceding one. Bach demonstrated the use of equal temperament by compiling this cycle of short pieces. The preludes could show off the effect of equal temperament in scale passages, while the fugues imitative processes required consonance in certain places to fulfill the work's satisfaction of the genre's requirements. 
 +
 
 +
===WTC: Book I (1722)===
 +
 
 +
Book I of the Well-Tempered Clavier was published towards the end of Bach's tenure at the Cöthen court.   
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre/instrument !! Key !! Score
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1a || BWV 846a || Prelude/keyboard || C Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv846a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%201%20in%20C%20Major%20(BWV%20846a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20846a BWV 846a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1b || BWV 846b || Fugue/keyboard || C Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv846b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%201%20in%20C%20Major%20(BWV%20846b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20846b BWV 846b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2a || BWV 847a || Prelude/keyboard || C Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv847a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%202%20in%20C%20Minor%20(BWV%20847a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20847a BWV 847a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2b || BWV 847b || Fugue/keyboard || C Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv847b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%202%20in%20C%20Minor%20(BWV%20847b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20847b BWV 847b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3a || BWV 848a || Prelude/keyboard || C# Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv848a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%203%20in%20C#%20Major%20(BWV%20848a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20848a BWV 848a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3b || BWV 848b || Fugue/keyboard || C# Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv848b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%203%20in%20C#%20Major%20(BWV%20848b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20848b BWV 848b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4a || BWV 849a || Prelude/keyboard || C# Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv849a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%204%20in%20C#%20Minor%20(BWV%20849a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20849a BWV 849a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4b || BWV 849b || Fugue/keyboard || C# Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv849b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%204%20in%20C#%20Minor%20(BWV%20849b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20849b BWV 849b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5a || BWV 850a || Prelude/keyboard || D Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv850a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%205%20in%20D%20Major%20(BWV%20850a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20850a BWV 850a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5b || BWV 850b || Fugue/keyboard || D Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv850b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%205%20in%20D%20Major%20(BWV%20850b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20850b BWV 850b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6a || BWV 851a || Prelude/keyboard || D Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv851a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%206%20in%20D%20Minor%20(BWV%20851a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20851a BWV 851a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6b || BWV 851b || Fugue/keyboard || D Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv851b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%206%20in%20D%20Minor%20(BWV%20851b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20851b BWV 851b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7a || BWV 852a || Prelude/keyboard || Eb Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv852a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%207%20in%20Eb%20Major%20(BWV%20852a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20852a BWV 852a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7b || BWV 852b || Fugue/keyboard || Eb Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv852b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%207%20in%20Eb%20Major%20(BWV%20852b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20852b BWV 852b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 8a || BWV 853a || Prelude/keyboard || Eb Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv853a&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Prelude%20No.%208%20in%20Eb%20Minor%20(BWV%20853a)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20853a BWV 853a]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 8b || BWV 853b || Fugue/keyboard || D# Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv853b&L1=(C)%201994%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=http://wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Fugue%20No.%208%20in%20D#%20Minor%20(BWV%20853b)&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Walter%20Hewlett,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20853b BWV 853b]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9a || BWV 854a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9b || BWV 854b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 10a || BWV 855a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 10b || BWV 855b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 11a || BWV 856a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 11b || BWV 856b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 12a || BWV 857a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 12b || BWV 857b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 13a || BWV 858a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 13b || BWV 858b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 14a || BWV 859a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 14b || BWV 859b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 15a || BWV 860a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 15b || BWV 860b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 16a || BWV 861a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 16b || BWV 861b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 17a || BWV 862a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 17b || BWV 862b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 18a || BWV 863a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 18b || BWV 863b|| Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 19a || BWV 864a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 19b || BWV 864b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 20a || BWV 865a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 20b || BWV 865b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 21a || BWV 866a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 21b || BWV 866b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 22a || BWV 867a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 22b || BWV 867b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 23a || BWV 868a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 23b || BWV 868b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 24a || BWV 869a || Example || Example || Example
 +
|-
 +
| No. 24b || BWV 869b || Example || Example || Example
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===WTC: Book II (1742)===
 +
 
 +
=== Two-part Inventions ===
  
[[File:JSB_Inv4.PNG|250px|thumb|right|J. S. Bach: Invention No. 4 from the holograph manuscript.]]
+
[[File:JSB_Inv4.PNG|280px|thumb|right|J. S. Bach: Invention No. 4 [BWV 775] from the holograph manuscript, Mus.ms. Bach P 610, Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek.]]
  
Bach's two-part inventions (BWV 772-786) constituted one set of several that J. S. Bach composed for his gifted son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784). The term invention is traced to the solo violin pieces Op. 10 (1713) by Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672-1749), a Trentine composer. Bach uses the Latin title <i>Inventio</i>, reminding us of his command of the language, which he taught in at least one of his posts in addition to teaching music. Each three-voice work that follow in the same collection was likewise called a <i>Sinfonia</i>.
+
Bach's two-part inventions (BWV 772-786) constituted one set of several that J. S. Bach composed for his gifted son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784). The term invention is traced to the solo violin pieces Op. 10 (1713) by Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672-1749), a Trentine composer. Bach uses the Latin title <i>Inventio</i>, reminding us of his command of the language, which he sometimes taught (in addition to teaching, composing, and performing music). Each three-voice work [see next section] was likewise called a <i>Sinfonia</i>.
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
Line 18: Line 219:
 
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instrument !! Key !! Score
 
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instrument !! Key !! Score
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1 || BWV 772 || Invention / harpsichord || C Major|| Example
+
| No. 1 || BWV 772 || Invention / harpsichord || C Major|| [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv772 BWV 772]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 1a || BWV 772a || Invention / harpsichord || C Major ||
 +
|-
 +
| No. 2 || BWV 773 || Invention / harpsichord || C Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv773&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%202%20in%20C%20minor&R1=%P=2%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20773 BWV 773]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 3 || BWV 774 || Invention / harpsichord || D Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv774&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%203%20in%20D%20major&R1=%P=3%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20774 BWV 774]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 4 || BWV 775 || Invention / harpsichord || D Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv775&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%204%20in%20D%20minor&R1=%P=4%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20775 BWV 775]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 5 || BWV 776 || Invention / harpsichord || E{{music|flat}} Major ||  [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv776&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%205%20in%20E-flat%20major&R1=%P=5%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20776 BWV 776]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 6 || BWV 777 || Invention / harpsichord || E Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv777&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%206%20in%20E%20major&R1=%P=6%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20777 BWV 777]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 7 || BWV 778 || Invention / harpsichord || E Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv778&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%207%20in%20E%20minor&R1=%P=7%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20778 BWV 778]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 8 || BWV 779 || Invention / harpsichord || F Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv779&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%208%20in%20F%20major&R1=%P=8%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20779 BWV 779]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 9 || BWV 780 || Invention / harpsichord || F Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv780&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%209%20in%20F%20minor&R1=%P=9%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20780 BWV 780]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 10 || BWV 781 || Invention / harpsichord || G Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv781&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2010%20n%20G%20major&R1=%P=10%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20781 BWV 781]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 11 || BWV 782 || Invention / harpsichord || G Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv782&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2011%20in%20G%20minor&R1=%P=11%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20782 BWV 782]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 12 || BWV 783 || Invention / harpsichord || A Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv783&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2012%20in%20A%20major&R1=%P=12%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20783 BWV 783]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 13 || BWV 784 || Invention / harpsichord || A Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv784&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2013%20in%20A%20minor&R1=%P=13%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20784 BWV 784]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 14 || BWV 785 || Invention / harpsichord || Bb Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv785&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2014%20in%20B-flat%20major&R1=%P=14%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20785 BWV 785]
 +
|-
 +
| No. 15 || BWV 786 || Invention / harpsichord || B Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv786&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=wiki.ccarh.org&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Invention%20No.%2015%20in%20B%20minor&R1=%P=15%20of%2015&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20786 BWV 786]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
The harmonic cycle that Bach has constructed in the collection as a whole foreshadows the tonally more complete cycles of the two sets of paired preludes and fugues called the Well-Tempered Clavier. They appeared in 1722 and 1744.  It was not enough for young Friedemann to be able to play the pieces. He was being called to understand the cyclic possibilities that inhered in tonal relationships. This was a dominant focus in music theory of the time.  Johann David Heinichen's [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_fifths Circle of Fifths] was first formalized in 1711 and has remained the dominant scheme for rationalizing harmonic relations in Western music theory.
 +
 
 +
===Three-part inventions (<i>Sinfonie</i>)===
 +
The three-part inventions, or <i>sinfonie</i>, follow the same cyclical organization in the aggregate. It has been suggested that the intended relationship between the inventions and sinfonias was to be performed in pairs, like the prelude-fugue sets of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Given their shared cycle of keys, Invention 1 might be followed by Sinfonia No. 1 and so forth.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Work No. !! Catalogue No. !! Genre / Instrument !! Key !! Score
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 1a || BWV 772a || Invention / harpsichord || C Major || Example
+
| No. 1 || BWV 787 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || C Major|| [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv787&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%201&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20787 BWV 787]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 2 || BWV 773 || Invention / harpsichord || C Minor || Example
+
| No. 2 || BWV 788 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || C Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv788&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%202&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20788 BWV 788]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 3 || BWV 774 || Invention / harpsichord || D Major || Example
+
| No. 3 || BWV 789 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || D Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv789&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%203&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20789 BWV 789]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 4 || BWV 775 || Invention / harpsichord || D Minor || Example
+
| No. 4 || BWV 790 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || D Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv790&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%204&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20790 BWV 790]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 5 || BWV 776 || Invention / harpsichord || E{{music|flat}} Major || Example
+
| No. 5 || BWV 791 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || E{{music|flat}} Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv791&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%205&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20791 BWV 791]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 6 || BWV 777 || Invention / harpsichord || E Major || Example
+
| No. 6 || BWV 792 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || E Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv792&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%206&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20792 BWV 792]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 7 || BWV 778 || Invention / harpsichord || E Minor || Example
+
| No. 7 || BWV 793 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || E Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv793&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%207&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20793 BWV 793]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 8 || BWV 779 || Invention / harpsichord || F Major || Example
+
| No. 8 || BWV 794 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || F Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv794&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%208&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20794 BWV 794]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 9 || BWV 780 || Invention / harpsichord || F Minor || Example
+
| No. 9 || BWV 795 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || F Minor ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 10 || BWV 781 || Invention / harpsichord || G Major || Example
+
| No. 10 || BWV 796 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || G Major ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 11 || BWV 782 || Invention / harpsichord || G Minor || Example
+
| No. 11 || BWV 797 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || G Minor || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv797&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%2011&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20797 BWV 797]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 12 || BWV 783 || Invention / harpsichord || A Major || Example
+
| No. 12 || BWV 798 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || A Major ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 13 || BWV 784 || Invention / harpsichord || A Minor || Example
+
| No. 13 || BWV 799 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || A Minor ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 14 || BWV 785 || Invention / harpsichord || Bb Major || Example
+
| No. 14 || BWV 800 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || Bb Major || [https://pdf.musedata.org/?id=bachjs-bwv800&L1=(C)%201993%20Center%20for%20Computer%20Assisted%20Research%20in%20the%20Humanities%20(CCARH)&L2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&L3=Bach,%20J.S.:%20Sinfonia%20No.%2014&R1=%P%20of%20%C&R2=Steven%20Rasmussen,%20ed.&R3=BWV%20800 BWV 800]
 
|-
 
|-
| No. 15 || BWV 786 || Invention / harpsichord || B Minor || Example
+
| No. 15 || BWV 801 || Sinfonia / harpsichord || B Minor ||  
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 03:08, 29 October 2020

Cantatas

Masses

Brandenburg Concertos

Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos are demonstrations par excellence of both virtuosity and interplay between most of instruments available to Bach's time in Thuringia, where Bach was raised and held all his posts prior to moving to Leipzig in 1723. He composed them while living in Cöthen, which offered few of the resources required here but may have prompted Bach to show how many different combinations of sounds could be found in the broader palette of sonorities in use within a day's travel from the court.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instruments ? Key Score (PDF) Concordances
No. 1 BWV 1046 Concerto / 2 Hn, Ob, Bn; VPiccolo, 2V, Va, Vc, Vne Gr, Cem F Major BWV 1046/3 = BWV 207a/1. BWV 1046/7 = BWV 207a/5a.
No. 1a BWV 1046a Concerto / 2 Hn, 3 Ob, Bn; 2V, Va, Vc, Cem F Major BWV 1046a BWV 1046a/1 = BWV 52/1
No. 2 BWV 1047 Concerto / Tr, Rec, Ob, Vn; 2V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem F Major BWV 1047
No. 3 BWV 1048 Concerto / 3V, 3Va, 3Vc, Vne, Cem G Major BWV 1048 BWV 1048/1 = BWV 174/1
No. 4 BWV 1049 Concerto / VPr, Rec, 2Vn, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem G Major BWV 1049 BWV 1049 = BWV 1057
No. 5 BWV 1050 Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vc, Vne, Cem D Major
No. 5a BWV 1050a Concerto / Fl, VPr, Cem concertato; V, Va, Vne D Major BWV 1050a
No. 6 BWV 1051 Concerto / 2Va, 2Va da gamba, Vc, Vne, Cem B Major BWV 1051

Orchestral Suites

Bach's orchestral suites come down to our time in editions based on third-party manuscripts datable to various years between 1724 and 1739. Those who have studied them recently lean to the view that, like the Brandenburgs, they were composed during Bach's Cöthen years (1717-1723) with Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen in mind. It is not clear, however, that he intended him as a set. The attribution of a putative fifth orchestra suite, BWV 1070, is widely discredited. BWV 1071, which is effectively a suite, corresponds to BWV 1046a, the alternative version of the first Brandenburg Concerto.

Each suite has a distinctly different character and each calls for a different ensemble. The treble wind in No. 2 is variously claimed to have been an oboe or a violin, although the flute and viola parts for it are in Bach's hand on one manuscript set in Berlin. We know that Bach sometimes modified one of another aspect (e.g. key) of individual works in his instrumental collections to meld the whole into a coherent entity. This may not have been the case with the ouvertures (as the orchestral suites were originally named), but the latitude to make changes is ever-present.

Earlier full or partial versions exist for two of the works, giving latitude to arguments for alternative instrumental choices. In the case of No. 2 (ostensibly the latest of the group), partisan perspectives on the principal part variously favor the violin (Joshua Rifkin), the flute (Steven Zohn), or the oboe (Gonsalo Ruiz). (Copy dates in the table below do not establish date of composition.)

Collection, Work No. Cat. No. Genre / Instruments Key Earliest copy date Score
Orchestral Suite, No. 1 BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 Example
Ouverture BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Ouverture
Courante BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Courante
Gavottes 1, 2 BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Gavottes 1, 2
Forlane BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Forlane
Minuets 1, 2 BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Minuets 1, 2
Bourrées 1, 2 BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Bourrées 1, 2
Passepieds 1, 2 BWV 1066 Suite / 2Ob, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo C Major Leipzig, 1724-1725 BWV 1066: Passepieds 1, 2
Orchestral Suite, No. 2 BWV 1067 Suite / Fl, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo B Minor Leipzig, 1738-1739
Orchestral Suite, No. 3 BWV 1068 Suite / 3Tr, Timp, 2Ob, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major Leipzig, 1730 Example
orchestral Suite, No. 4 BWV 1069 Suite / 3Tr, Timp, 3Pb, Bn, 2V, Va, Vc, Cb, Continuo D Major Leipzig, 1730 Example

Works for Organ

Preludes and Fugues for Organ (BWV 531-535)

These two-movement sets for organ, despite their outward resemblance to the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Inventions, share with the orchestral suites that they span quite a stretch of Bach's lifetime. They share the two-movement arrangement but were undoubtedly composed for varied circumstances. Despite the span of years they cover, these works are set apart by the brilliance of the preludes. As assembled, they constitute a pentatonic cycle--C Major (c1703-c1707), D Major (1708-1712), E Minor (1703), F Minor (c1712-1717), and G Minor (post-1717). (N.B. Subscripts in the table below distinguish preludes and fugues sharing a BWV number. They do not refer to other versions of the work.)

Work Number Catalogue Number Genre/instrumentation Key Score
No. 1a BWV 531a Prelude/Organ C Major Example
No. 1b BWV 531b Fugue/Organ C Major Example
No. 2a BWV 532a Prelude/Organ D Major BWV 532
No. 2b BWV 532b Fugue/Organ D Major BWV 532
No. 3a BWV 533a Prelude/Organ E Minor Example
No. 3b BWV 533b Fugue/Organ E Minor Example
No. 4a BWV 534a Prelude/Organ F Minor Example
No. 4b BWV 534b Fugue/Organ F Minor Example
No. 5a BWV 535a Prelude/Organ G Minor Example
No. 5b BWV 535b Fugue/Organ G Minor Example

Works for Harpsichord

The Well-tempered Clavier

Bach composed two books of 24 pairs of works in each key (major and minor) of the "well-tempered" keyboard. Each pair consists of a prelude and fugue. Equal temperament, the practical virtue of which was the ability to play in any key without retuning the instrument, was emerging when Bach compiled the first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Equal temperament, in which each named tone set equidistant (in cents) from adjacent keys, was not instantly adopted everywhere. Organs were generally tuned to meantone temperament. Much of the music of Asia employs just intonation, which requires an instrument to be retuned for the next piece, unless it is in the same key as the preceding one. Bach demonstrated the use of equal temperament by compiling this cycle of short pieces. The preludes could show off the effect of equal temperament in scale passages, while the fugues imitative processes required consonance in certain places to fulfill the work's satisfaction of the genre's requirements.

WTC: Book I (1722)

Book I of the Well-Tempered Clavier was published towards the end of Bach's tenure at the Cöthen court.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre/instrument Key Score
No. 1a BWV 846a Prelude/keyboard C Major BWV 846a
No. 1b BWV 846b Fugue/keyboard C Major BWV 846b
No. 2a BWV 847a Prelude/keyboard C Minor BWV 847a
No. 2b BWV 847b Fugue/keyboard C Minor BWV 847b
No. 3a BWV 848a Prelude/keyboard C# Major BWV 848a
No. 3b BWV 848b Fugue/keyboard C# Major BWV 848b
No. 4a BWV 849a Prelude/keyboard C# Minor BWV 849a
No. 4b BWV 849b Fugue/keyboard C# Minor BWV 849b
No. 5a BWV 850a Prelude/keyboard D Major BWV 850a
No. 5b BWV 850b Fugue/keyboard D Minor BWV 850b
No. 6a BWV 851a Prelude/keyboard D Minor BWV 851a
No. 6b BWV 851b Fugue/keyboard D Minor BWV 851b
No. 7a BWV 852a Prelude/keyboard Eb Major BWV 852a
No. 7b BWV 852b Fugue/keyboard Eb Major BWV 852b
No. 8a BWV 853a Prelude/keyboard Eb Minor BWV 853a
No. 8b BWV 853b Fugue/keyboard D# Minor BWV 853b
No. 9a BWV 854a Example Example Example
No. 9b BWV 854b Example Example Example
No. 10a BWV 855a Example Example Example
No. 10b BWV 855b Example Example Example
No. 11a BWV 856a Example Example Example
No. 11b BWV 856b Example Example Example
No. 12a BWV 857a Example Example Example
No. 12b BWV 857b Example Example Example
No. 13a BWV 858a Example Example Example
No. 13b BWV 858b Example Example Example
No. 14a BWV 859a Example Example Example
No. 14b BWV 859b Example Example Example
No. 15a BWV 860a Example Example Example
No. 15b BWV 860b Example Example Example
No. 16a BWV 861a Example Example Example
No. 16b BWV 861b Example Example Example
No. 17a BWV 862a Example Example Example
No. 17b BWV 862b Example Example Example
No. 18a BWV 863a Example Example Example
No. 18b BWV 863b Example Example Example
No. 19a BWV 864a Example Example Example
No. 19b BWV 864b Example Example Example
No. 20a BWV 865a Example Example Example
No. 20b BWV 865b Example Example Example
No. 21a BWV 866a Example Example Example
No. 21b BWV 866b Example Example Example
No. 22a BWV 867a Example Example Example
No. 22b BWV 867b Example Example Example
No. 23a BWV 868a Example Example Example
No. 23b BWV 868b Example Example Example
No. 24a BWV 869a Example Example Example
No. 24b BWV 869b Example Example Example

WTC: Book II (1742)

Two-part Inventions

J. S. Bach: Invention No. 4 [BWV 775] from the holograph manuscript, Mus.ms. Bach P 610, Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek.

Bach's two-part inventions (BWV 772-786) constituted one set of several that J. S. Bach composed for his gifted son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784). The term invention is traced to the solo violin pieces Op. 10 (1713) by Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672-1749), a Trentine composer. Bach uses the Latin title Inventio, reminding us of his command of the language, which he sometimes taught (in addition to teaching, composing, and performing music). Each three-voice work [see next section] was likewise called a Sinfonia.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instrument Key Score
No. 1 BWV 772 Invention / harpsichord C Major BWV 772
No. 1a BWV 772a Invention / harpsichord C Major
No. 2 BWV 773 Invention / harpsichord C Minor BWV 773
No. 3 BWV 774 Invention / harpsichord D Major BWV 774
No. 4 BWV 775 Invention / harpsichord D Minor BWV 775
No. 5 BWV 776 Invention / harpsichord E Major BWV 776
No. 6 BWV 777 Invention / harpsichord E Major BWV 777
No. 7 BWV 778 Invention / harpsichord E Minor BWV 778
No. 8 BWV 779 Invention / harpsichord F Major BWV 779
No. 9 BWV 780 Invention / harpsichord F Minor BWV 780
No. 10 BWV 781 Invention / harpsichord G Major BWV 781
No. 11 BWV 782 Invention / harpsichord G Minor BWV 782
No. 12 BWV 783 Invention / harpsichord A Major BWV 783
No. 13 BWV 784 Invention / harpsichord A Minor BWV 784
No. 14 BWV 785 Invention / harpsichord Bb Major BWV 785
No. 15 BWV 786 Invention / harpsichord B Minor BWV 786

The harmonic cycle that Bach has constructed in the collection as a whole foreshadows the tonally more complete cycles of the two sets of paired preludes and fugues called the Well-Tempered Clavier. They appeared in 1722 and 1744. It was not enough for young Friedemann to be able to play the pieces. He was being called to understand the cyclic possibilities that inhered in tonal relationships. This was a dominant focus in music theory of the time. Johann David Heinichen's Circle of Fifths was first formalized in 1711 and has remained the dominant scheme for rationalizing harmonic relations in Western music theory.

Three-part inventions (Sinfonie)

The three-part inventions, or sinfonie, follow the same cyclical organization in the aggregate. It has been suggested that the intended relationship between the inventions and sinfonias was to be performed in pairs, like the prelude-fugue sets of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Given their shared cycle of keys, Invention 1 might be followed by Sinfonia No. 1 and so forth.

Work No. Catalogue No. Genre / Instrument Key Score
No. 1 BWV 787 Sinfonia / harpsichord C Major BWV 787
No. 2 BWV 788 Sinfonia / harpsichord C Minor BWV 788
No. 3 BWV 789 Sinfonia / harpsichord D Major BWV 789
No. 4 BWV 790 Sinfonia / harpsichord D Minor BWV 790
No. 5 BWV 791 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Major BWV 791
No. 6 BWV 792 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Major BWV 792
No. 7 BWV 793 Sinfonia / harpsichord E Minor BWV 793
No. 8 BWV 794 Sinfonia / harpsichord F Major BWV 794
No. 9 BWV 795 Sinfonia / harpsichord F Minor
No. 10 BWV 796 Sinfonia / harpsichord G Major
No. 11 BWV 797 Sinfonia / harpsichord G Minor BWV 797
No. 12 BWV 798 Sinfonia / harpsichord A Major
No. 13 BWV 799 Sinfonia / harpsichord A Minor
No. 14 BWV 800 Sinfonia / harpsichord Bb Major BWV 800
No. 15 BWV 801 Sinfonia / harpsichord B Minor