W E L C O M E    T O    D M U S E     

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1.1       Dmuse is a multi-tiered program.  At the most basic level, 
      it is a program designed to display and print musical scores and 
      parts.  You may use it for this purpose without knowing about or 
      using any of its other features.  But Dmuse can also function as 
      a multi-window, multi-tasking research environment.  It includes 
      a resident file manager, a fully integrated screen editor with 
      30 overlapped windows and a powerful programming language called 
      Zbex.  Each of the 30 windows can act like a computer terminal 
      and run a Zbex program.  At the same time, these windows 
      continue to respond to screen editor commands.  

1.2       We have attempted to organize the documentation for Dmuse 
      in a way that reflects its multi-tiered character.  At the 
      simplist level, the operation of the program is designed to be 
      self evident -- hence the menu bar at the top, with its five 
      pull-down menus.  Using these menus, you can perform the basic 
      operations necessary to display and print music.  The help 
      subjects Displaying Music and Printing Music (included in the 
      help menu), will give you the information you need to perform 
      these functions.  

1.3       The next level of complexity is learning to use the screen 
      editor.  This knowledge will be useful if you decide you want 
      to edit the music files.  Also, learning to use the editor is 
      a prerequisite to using any of the advanced features of Dmuse.  
      The help subject, Using the Screen Editor gives a complete 
      description of how the editor functions.  You may also learn 
      about the editor keystrokes through The Editor Keystrokes 
      utility included in the help menu.  

1.4       If you want to edit or change the music, you will need to 
      understand the format of the Music Page Files (.MPG files) 
      and the Compressed Format Files (.CFT files).  You will find 
      documentation for these subjects in the help selections 
      MPG file format and CFT file format.  

1.5       You will find the resident file manager to be an extremely 
      useful utility.  A detailed description of this utility can be 
      found in the help selection Resident File Manager.  

1.6       The advance applications fall into three categories:
      (1) using wordwrap with the editor, (2) the Zbex programming 
      language, and (3) the use of dictionaries.  Dmuse is installed 
      with these applications disabled.  The idea is that Dmuse 
      should appear initially as a simple and easy-to-use program 
      for those people who only want to display and print music.  
      If you are interested in one or more of the advanced 
      applications, the help selection Advanced Topics contains 
      the documentation you need, including instructions on how 
      to activate these features.  

1.7       This completes the introduction to Dmuse.  For those 
      users who are curious about the origin and evolution of the 
      Dmuse program, what follows is a history of how this program 
      came to be written and what future purposes it might serve.  


2.1       The story begins in the mid 1970's before the advent of 
      personal computers.  At that time, the smallest computer a user 
      could buy was called a MINI computer.  In terms of today's PC 
      hardware and software, the MINI computer was a technological 
      infant.  Memory size and disk space were measured in kilobytes 
      instead of megabytes; and computer speed was measured in 
      thousands of Hertz instead of billions.  

2.2       The software required to run the MINI computer was arcane 
      a user pretty much needed a background in computer science to 
      use one.  Nevertheless, there were visionaries at that time 
      who understood the potential the computer held for changing 
      the way we work.  One of these was David Woodley Packard, a 
      professor of Classics at UCLA.  Packard was interested in 
      using the MINI computer for research and teaching in ancient 
      languages, principally ancient Greek.  Using knowledge he had 
      gained from working with the computer system at UCLA, Packard 
      designed a specialized time sharing system called Ibycus, 
      which ran on Hewlett Packard hardware and displayed ancient 
      Greek on computer terminals, something that had not been done 
      before.  To assist the development of applications on this 
      system, Packard developed a specialized programming language 
      called Ibex.  

2.3       I first became interested in computer applications in music 
      in 1982.  At that time, commercial software applications for 
      the Humanities were practically non existant.  Most of the work 
      being done in this area was confined to university research 
      projects using large, centralized computing facilites.  I did 
      not have access to these kinds of resources, but fortunately I 
      was familiar with the progress that David Packard had made in 
      creating a scaled down, affordable system for humanities 
      research.  I therefore arranged to acquire an Ibycus system for 
      my own research.  The Ibycus system turned out to be ideal for 
      this purpose, and its availability was one of the primary factors 
      in my decision in 1985 to formally establish the non-profit 
      Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities (CCARH).  

2.4       We continued to use the Ibycus system at CCARH until 1989, 
      at which time we decided the system needed upgrading.  David 
      Packard had already made the decision to abandon the outdated 
      MINI computer hardware and to implement his next version of 
      Ibycus on a dedicated personal computer which he designed and 
      built himself and which he called the Baby Ibycus.  Moving in 
      a slightly different direction, I decided to implemented a 
      stripped down version of the Ibycus system first on a UNIX 
      workstation using X-Windows and later on the PC.  I called my 
      program "the Monster," because it ran all of my Ibex software 
      and served as a complete working environment.  I added some 
      features to the Ibex programming language but dropped others.  
      In particular, the system lost its capability to display 
      ancient Greek but gained the capability to display musical 
      notation.  I have named this Ibex variant Zbex.  

2.5       We have been using the Monster at CCARH since 1992.  We use 
      it for all of our data entry, data storage, music typesetting 
      and publishing, and music research applications.  We also use 
      it for running the Center.  All of the financial operations of 
      the Center -- check writing, book keeping, payroll and payroll 
      taxes are done with Ibex programs running on the Monster.  All 
      software development is done using the Monster's editor.  All 
      research software is written in Zbex.  

2.6       When it came time to write a user program for displaying 
      and printing music, what I needed was a user interface.  I 
      already had versions of these programs written in Zbex and 
      running on the Monster.  My two choices were (1) to write a 
      new, dedicated interface for this purpose, or (2) to graft 
      the music display and printing applications onto the existing 
      Monster program.  I chose the second option for two reasons: 
      (1) I determined that it would take less time to get the job 
      done if I used the interface I had already developed, and (2) 
      I saw good reasons for making the Monster available to other 
      people.  This inproved version of the Monster was completed 
      in 1995 and was given the name Dmuse.  

2.7       From 1995 until 2006, the Dmuse environment stayed  
      basically the same and became quite stable over these years 
      of use.  But the world of computing changed radically during 
      this same time period.  The DOS operating system, upon which 
      Dmuse was built, virtually became extinct.  Computer speed 
      and memory increased more than 100 fold, and graphical interfaces 
      were completely redesigned.  These changes -- especially the 
      death of DOS -- threatened to choke off Dmuse as a viable user 
      interface.  It was clear that Dmuse needed to be moved to a 
      new platform.  My choice was Linux.  

2.8       In the fall of 2006, I began a process of revising Dmuse 
      to run in a X-Window on Linux.  Fortunately, I had the experience 
      in 1989 of writing to X, and also the necessary documentation.  
      I say "fortunately," because in today's world (2007) most 
      interface programmers never deal with X-Windows directly; 
      instead, they write using higher level "Widgets."  The problem 
      with Widgets is that they presuppose certain interface 
      conventions such as popup windows, buttons, slide bars, etc., 
      all of which are made easy.  But other interface conventions 
      such as the blackboard metaphone used by Dmuse become extremely 
      difficult if not impossible to implement with Widget style  
      programming.  The transfer of the Dmuse environment to Linux 
      was competed in the fall of 2007.  


3.1       I believe that Dmuse could become a valuable asset to anyone 
      wishing to use the computer for research in many branches of the 
      Humanities, including but not limited to music.  As people in the 
      field of Classics are aware, David Woodley Packard's Ibycus 
      system was highly successful for both teaching and research 
      purposes and was instrumental in the development of the great 
      databases of classical literature, the TLG at UC Irvine and the 
      TLL at the Packard Humanities Institute and Yale University.  I 
      believe other such opportunites also exist.  The fact is that 
      scholars have just barely scratched the surface of what computers 
      can do in aiding research in their disciplines.  Each of today's 
      PCs is 1000 times more powerful than the big, multi-million 
      dollar mainframes of the 1960's that used to sit behind glass 
      walls at major universities.  Yet in terms of reseach applications 
      in the humanities, in most cases (Classics is an exception) we 
      have not progressed very far from those days.  

3.2       This brings me to the final help selection, namely, New 
      Directions.  Here I discuss possible new directions that 
      Dmuse could take, including both musical and non-musical 
      applications.  We cannot move forward in all directions at 
      once.  The decision about what we do next depends in large 
      part on what you, the users of this program, would like to 
      have.  We recognize that there are a lot of software 
      alternatives available to today's user and that a program 
      like Dmuse will be useful only if it occupies a niche that 
      is both useful and unique.  We welcome your feedback.      

      Walter B. Hewlett 
      Stanford, CA 
      December, 2007