SCORE parameter exercises
Here are some more short musical samples to do as an exercise to become familiar with SCORE's parameters after doing this set of simpler exercises. These exercises focus on editing object parameters after the basic musical structure has been input into the SCORE editor in the user input mode.
Input and do edit adjustments on the following 10 examples. You should refer to the SCORE Reference Manual and the SCORE parameter table. Also, you can get brief explanations of each parameter for an item when editing it by pressing the notes (P1=1) and slurs (P1=5). A review of the User Input Manual may also be helpful.function key in the SCORE program. Brief visual summaries of the parameters are available online for the more complicated item types:
While doing each exercise, make a brief list of parameters you needed to alter in order to typeset each exercise that you do. Turn this list in with your completed exercises. For example to horizontally offset notes in exercise #1 below, you should alter P10 of the notes to offset them from the default time position. Another example would be which parameter for line codes needs to be changed to get a dashed line as seen in example #1 and what value indicates a dashed line rather than a solid line?
Here is a PDF file with the exercises already typeset: hardscore.pdf.
1 Example 1
Buxtehude exercise which is a study on how place multiple voices onto a single staff with the notes spatially offset from each other so that separate stems are visible. When doing this exercise, user input should be done in at least two passes on the top staff. For the third voice, another pass could be done, or you can manually add the notes for the third voice. When adding an incomplete secondary layer of music, you can enter rests where there is no music for the voice, and then erase those place-holder rests later. Alternatively you can insert invisible rests (called "RI" in the pitch-input stage). For the cross-staff notes in the fourth measures, you can enter that in several ways, the most convenient is to use "S-" in the pitch stage to temporarily move one of the top-staff voices to the bottom staff, and then "S0" to move the voice back up to the top staff to continue data entry for the next measure. You can also insert the notes in the extra voices in measure 4 in the bottom staff as multiple layers on the bottom staff, but more convenient in this case (other than the S- method) would be to just copy notes and manually construct these temporary voices.
- Note offsets for the multiple voices in this example are altered with P10 of code 1 items (notes). Note that the P3 value of all notes on a staff which are to be played at the same time must be equal. Offsetting a note visually by adjusting the P3 instead of P10 will cause LJ to treat them as a melodic sequence rather than a vertical sonority.
- The dashed line is input in command mode as a dashed line (P1=4 for lines). Try the command "DASH 2".
2 Example 2
Cross-staff beaming. This exercise looks deceptively easy since there are few notes, but it takes careful consideration to get it right, and to do it efficiently. See the tips below the example.
Hints: This is a tricky example to accomplish even though it looks easy.
- Input all of the musical notes on the bottom staff.
- Use the S+ and S0 (S-zero) in input mode to move the notes temporarily to the upper staff and then back again to the original staff.
- Use the STUD command to align the stems (see manual).
- Put invisible rests in the top staff (one for each measure). The durations of the eighth notes are probably best represented by triplet eighths (TE in rhythm-stage). If so, then the two invisible rests have a duration of 7 quarter notes.
- The repeat brackets above the measures were entered with a blank middle, then some text was manually added to generate the 2X marking.
- The word sempre has to be added as a text item (using font _02 for italic); likewise for "Ped. sempre".
3 Example 3
- The small notes are cue-sized notes which can be entered in user input mode with the commands Q+ and Q-.
- The duration of the small notes are quintuplet sixteenth notes, which occur 20 times in a whole note (they are not grace notes).
- The notes in the first measure of the bottom staff can be entered as "EN3:G:DUx3". In other words three of the same chord, but the natural and sharp will not be duplicated on the second and third chords.
- The duration of graces notes is indicated in the rhythm stage with a "G".
- The numbers near the beams are tuplet numbers. Search for the parameter used to specify a "number over a beam" either in the SCORE reference manual, the parameter matrix, or by pressing while editing the beam to view the parameter list and help for the beam item. The tuplet numbers on beams can also be added in user input mode. For example the beam-entry text for the sextuplet beam in the third mesasure is "608 13" which means beam notes 8 through 13, placing a "6" on the beam.
4 Example 4
Liber usualis. There are several ways to typeset this example in SCORE. A simple method would be to change the notehead shape to the visual display below for each neume. The JT command can be used to space the text correctly after notes and text have been entered.
- Add a blank 4-line staff, then position the text next, then position the neumes last.
- Neumes can be entered either as code 9 items (symbols) or as code 1 items (notes) with special shapes for the note heads and no stems. Doing the neumes as notes is the best option, replacing the notehead shape with a neume shape. See P6 of notes. Some neumes such as the one over "mi-" and "es," are best done by inserting multiple notes with the same P3, then adjusting the P10 of notes to spread them out horizontally. This will keep the spacings fixed when using LJ.
- The barline in the middle of the staff has non-default start and stop points. See P10 and P11 for barlines in the user manual or with the help button (when you are editing a beam).
- The JT command will be useful for this example. See documentation about JT in the reference manual (under the Code 16 chapter). Also try typing "?JT" in command mode to see brief documentation about the JT command.
5 Example 5
- In user input mode "S+" is used to position notes one staff above the current staff; "S0" moves notes back to the current staff.
- Occasional secondary voice notes/rests can be added manually, or added as a second pass of data entry on the staff (either using invisible rests which are not recommended, or rests as rhythm placeholders to delete later).
- Grace notes have the duration "G" in the rhythm-stage.
- Use "DIm" in the marks-stage to place the dim. (diminuendo) mark (typically attached to the second staff).
- In measure 3, the rests can be entered in the pitch-stage as RD (rest down). Or these rests can be inserted in command mode "REST 2 100" for adding a quarter rest to the middle of the second staff. Then move the rest near a note it comes under and then type "CN" while editing the rest to center it exactly under the note.
- The staccatos on the stem side of notes can be entered as "-S" in the marks-stage of user input. Otherwise they have to be moved manually above the beams using P14 of the note. It is possible to do this visually rather than guessing at the vertical accent offset values. Alternately negate P11 to move the staccato to the stem side of the note. P13 of notes can be used to align the staccato horizontally with the stem (which is a common style not used in this example).
- Horizontal adjustment of the articulations (staccatos) should be done with P13 of the note. The staccatos should be centered on the stem rather than the notehead when they are on the stem side of the note (contrary to what you see in the example).
6 Example 6
- Octaves (in the top staff) can be entered by adding a "+" to add an octave above a note, or "-" to add an octave below a note. For example the first octave F's in the top staff can be encoded as "F5+" or "F5-".
- Note that the notes in the left hand (bottom staff) are triplet eighth notes (not plain eighth notes). "TE" or "12" are the rhythm stage symbols for triplet-eighths. This is important—if you don't match the duration of the two staves, then the LJ command will not work.
- For the first slur (or tie since SCORE does not differentiate between the two) on the top staff, use the slur-stage numbers "0 1", where 0 means it goes off to the left across the system break.
- For the second slur on the top staff, use the slur-stage numbers "3 99", where 99 means it goes off to the right across the system break.
- Type "ARP 2 150" to place an arpeggio roughly where it should be place in the music. Use and with the and arrow keys to adjust the height of the arpeggio. The LJ command should be (re)run after the arpeggio mark has been positioned near the notes it applies to.
- The whole-note in measure 3 could be either added in several ways:
- with a second pass on the bottom staff in user-input mode (using a temporary rest with duration WW which you can delete later)
- As an invisible rest with duration WW (not recommended).
- a copy of a nearby eighth-note which the notehead shape changed to a whole note (P6=2), and optionally the duration changes to 4 quarter notes (P7=4).
7 Example 7
One of Pachelbel's other works.
- Check the usage of P8 for beams to create the tricky beam break in the third measure in the reference manual (or online help for P8).
8 Example 8
- Similar to example 9. Refer to the SCORE 4.0 manual addition for samples of the symbol library.
- Probably most efficient to insert finger letters as notes, and then change the notehead-shapes.
- The notes above the staff could be entered as code 9 items, or as notes.
- The fancy repeat barline is best done with a code 8 item (#943 adn #945) see the list of graphical objects in the SCORE 3.10 Manual Additions documentation.
- Invisible barlines can be input in input mode with "RI" in the pitch stage. These might be handy to have at the beginning and ending of the staff if you plan to use LJ.
9 Example 9
Schoenberg piece with tonerow underneath.
- The top two lines should be justified independently from the bottom line.
- P7 on the last note of the P-0 tone row on the bottom staff should be given a duration of 2 rather than 1 so that there is an extra spacing gap before the next tone row.
- See the reference manual for how to print an "ä" character and ♩ (Chapter 16 for Text items).
10 Example 10
- The 32nd note markings are for tremolos which are indicated as beam items.