Josquin Project encoding standards

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Conventions for encoding Josquin music in Finale. See Hyperscribe notes for tips on settings in Finale for real-time entry. General guidelines for entering mensural music in modern notation in Finale are available here: (PDF, Microsoft Word).

1 Filenames

Only characters for POSIX-portable filenames should be used. Allowable characters are "A" through "Z", "a" through "z", period ".", dash "-", and underscore "_".

Data filenames should be given names according to this naming convention:

    Filename component Description
    Xxx A unique three-letter identification abbreviation which identifies the composer, who is possibly spurious (see Composer codes listed below).
    1234 A four-digit catalog number for the specific composer. For Josquin, the catalog number matches the NJE volume (first two digits) and work number within the volume (second two digits). If a Josquin work is not yet published in the NJE, then the first two digits are "99". For most other composers, the first digit indicates the genre (1=mass, 2=motet, 3=secular song), and the last two (or three) digits are an enumeration of the works in the genre (typically alphabetical).
    [.123456789] An optional variant enumeration for the work. The variant number can be any number of digits, with a dot to separate the variant number from the main catalog number. The primary variant will be the the one with the lowest enumeration (or the file without an optional variant number). Typically the primary variant will not posses a variant number, or it can be explicitly given a variant number of "0" to emphasize that it is the primary variant. Works which do not posses a particular variant primacy should start numbering variants at "1". The variant number for different sections (of a mass, or other multi-section works spanning multiple files) must have matching variant numbers, unless other sections are represented by the primary variant (which should be "0" or no variant number).
    [a] An optional lower case letter which maps to sections of a work. This is used particularly for masses, where the common enumeration of the sections given in separate files is: a=Kyrie, b=Gloria, c=Credo, d=Sanctus, e=Agnus Dei. Note that some masses have more sections, so these are not fixed-meaning section letters.
    [.a-z] An optional section variant number expressed as a dot followed by any number of lower-case letters. Typically the first variant will be labeled ".a" and the second ".b" and so on.
    [1] An optional number which indicates the subsection of a section. If this number is given, then the section letter described above is also required. For example, if a data file only contains the Christe (sub)section of a mass's Kyrie section, then the section and subsection in the filename would typically be given as "a2". "a" for the first section of the mass (Kyrie), and "2" for the second section of the Kyrie (which usually has the sections Kyrie I, Christe, Kyrie II).
    [.123456789] An optional sub-section variant number, similar to the main work variant numbering described above.
    - The end of the full catalog ID must be followed by a dash to separate it from the rest of the filename which follows. All data files in the JRP website must have a unique catalog number, while the titles which follow the catalog number do not have to be unique. The catalog number before the first dash in the filename is guaranteed to be unique. The textual information after the first dash in the file may not be unique (within the works of a single composer, and definitely not unique between the works of multiple composers).
    title The title of the work. Spaces are converted to underscores. See below for more details.
    [-section title] Optional section title which must be seprated from the work title with a dash.
    [[-]-edition] Optional non-title information useful/necessary to identify the data in the file. This is typically a source edition, variant name, or alternate work title. If there is no subsection title, then there must be two dashes before the text of this component in the filename.

NJE (New Josquin Edition) volume and work numbers should be proceeded by a "0" if the number is less than 10. No dot between the volume and work number. For example Missa Gaudeamus by Josquin, NJE 4.2, first section (Kyrie) is:

  • If a filename contains an encoding variant, then there must be a movement-level name, which could be empty, resulting in two dashes before the variant text, such as:
  • To encode slashes in filenames for titles, use two underscore characters to represent a slash:
  2918-Nymphes_des_bois__Requiem   for "Nymphes des bois/Requiem"
  • Accented characters (such as é) be given with the accent removed. Apostrophes should also not be included in the filename. Parentheses should not be included in the filename. Spaces should not be included in the filename.

1.1 Non-NJE catalog numbers

For Josquin works which do not have an NJE volume/work number, use 99 as the volume number, and an arbitrary work number (from 01 to 99). Arbitrary work numbers are assigned in the following list, with the NJE column listing an NJE number when it becomes available:

    ID New ID Title Note
    Jos9901 Missa Mi mi (1) The Other Josquin, (2) Pipelare Opera omnia
    Jos9902 O bone et dulcissime Jesu 2vv. Almost certainly the two "si placet" voices from the six-voice version of Jos2109 in MunBS 41 by Anonymous.
    Jos9903 Regine celi 6vv, Musical Times, August 1971, supplement, ed. Noble.
    Jos9904 Proch dolor Smijers Supplement #14, pp.66-72.
    Jos9905 unassigned
    Jos9906 Missa Inviolata Osanna Fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9907 Omnes gentes Fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9908 Scriptum est enim 7-note fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9909 In deficiendo ex me spiritum meum Fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9910 Seculum nostrum & illuminatio vultus tui 11-note fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9911 Castigans castigavit me dominus 18-note fragment. Lodovico Zacconi, "Prattica di Musica" (1592)
    Jos9912 Pleni Correa de Arauxo (1626)

If any of the above works are published in the NJE, then their catalog number will change in the future to reflect the volume/work number in the NJE.

1.2 Composer codes

All data files must start with a composer code. The composer code is a unique three-letter abbreviation for the composer. The first letter of the code should be capitalized and the other two letters in lower case. However, the code is case insensitive so that "Jos", "jos", "JoS", etc. all mean Josquin.

Here is a current list of composer codes:

    ID Composer Rest of Name Dates Note
    Ano Anonymous
    Agr Agricola Alexander ~1445-1506/08/15
    Bas Basiron Philippe ~1449-<1491/05/31
    Bau Bauldeweyn Noel fl. 1509–13
    Bin Binchois Gilles ~1400-1460/09/20
    Bru Brumel Antoine ca. 1460–ca. 1513
    Bus Busnoys Antoine ~1430-1492/11/06
    Car Caron Firminus ~1460-1475
    Com Compère Loyset ~1445-1518/08/16
    Dom Domarto Petrus de <1445-1455
    Duf Du Fay Guillaume 1397/08/~05-1474/11/27 large repertory
    Dun Dunstaple John ~1390-1453/12/24
    Fau Faugues Guillaume ~1460-1475
    Fry Frye Walter  ?-<1475/06
    Fva Févin Antoine de ~1470-~1511
    Fvr Févin Robert de ~1400s-~1500s
    Gas Gaspar Gaspar van Weerbeke ~1445->1516
    Ghi Ghiselin Johannes <1491-1507
    Isa Isaac Henricus ~1453-1517/03/26 large repertory
    Jap Japart Jean ~1476-1481
    Jos Josquin des Prez ~1476-1481 large repertory
    Mar Martini Johannes ~1430-1440
    Mou Mouton Jean <1459-1522/10/30
    Obr Obrecht Jacob ~1457-1505/08/01 large repertory
    Ock Ockeghem Johannes ~1410-1497/02/06
    Ort de Orto Marbrianus ~1460–1529
    Pip Pipelare Matthaeus ~1450-~1515
    Plu Plummer John ~1410-~1484
    Pow Power Leonel ~1375-1445/06/05
    Pri Prioris Johannes <1485-1512
    Puy Puyllois Johannes  ?-1478/08/23
    Reg Regis Johannes ~1425-~1496
    Rue La Rue Pierre de ~1452-1518/11/20 large repertory
    Sto Stokem Johannes de ~1450-1521/08/27
    Tin Tinctoris Johannes ~1432-1511/02/09
    Urr Urrede Juan de <1451-~1482
    Vaq Vaqueras Bertrandus ~1450-1507/04/21

Composer codes should ideally reflect the alphabetically ordering of the composers they represent. This will facilitate alphabetically sorting of search-results by composer by sorting the matching data files.

Spurious compositions will still be given the composer code of the spurious composer. In the database, the composition data will be linked to the alternate composer(s) by using a different catalog number.

1.3 Manuscript codes

Manuscript sources can also be assigned a unique three-letter code. Works are collected by manuscript sources when they are primarily by anonymous authors.

2 Part names

  • Each part should have a part name. The part names should be spelled the same in all files and start with a capital letter. Possible part names are: Superius, Altus, Tenor, Bassus, Contra, Discantus, Cantus, Sextus, Vagrans. If there is more than one voice for each vocal function, add a number after the name (with no space), such as Tenor1, Tenor2.

Part names are located in the MusicXML export in: score-partwise/part-list/score-part@id="P1"/part-name text. P1 is the top part on the system, P2 is the second to top part on the system, etc..

3 Internal Documentation

The menu option File→File Info... opens up a window which contains information about the file. The title and composer(?) field should be filled in (red fields highlighted below). The blue highlighted fields are exported into MusicXML, so they can be used for some purpose.

File Info window in Finale 2009.
  • The Title: should contain the title of the work. The NJE number should be given (after the title, or in the style used for the filename above? It doesn't seem to add anything to have two naming systems.). If there is a section name, then place a space-dash-space between the title of the work and the title of the section. In MusicXML, this field maps to score-partwise/movement-title text. For example, a title might look like:
  • The Subtitle: field does not export into MusicXML (Finale 2009).
  • The Composer: field should contain "Josquin" for those in blue, "Josquin(?)" for those in purple, and "Josquin?" for the others. Perhaps mark the certainty of the composer (e.g. spurious, attributed, suspected, etc.). In MusicXML, this field maps to score-partwise/identification/creator@type=composer text.
  • The Arranger: field should contain the name of the encoder and the date of the encoding, e.g. "Jesse Rodin 2010/11/23". It maps in MusicXML to score-partwise/identification/creator@type=arranger text. If there is more than one encoder, such as when an older encoding is being reworked, add the second encoder after a semicolon, such as:
     Jesse Rodin; Victoria Chang 2011/03/28
     Jesse Rodin 2008; Victoria Chang 2011/03/28
  • The Lyricist: field should contain the name of the edition used for transcription (NJE, Smijers, Davison, Finscher, etc.). It maps in MusicXML to score-partwise/identification/creator@type=lyricist text.
  • The Copyright: field maps in MusicXML to score-partwise/identification/rights text (can be used for some purpose).
  • The Description: field does not export into MusicXML (Finale 2009).
  • The Score Name Insert: field does not export into MusicXML (Finale 2009).
  • The Created: field does not export into MusicXML (Finale 2009).
  • The Modified: field does not export into MusicXML (Finale 2009).

4 Mensural signs

  • Mensural signs do not need to be indicated for the following time signatures which are assigned these mensural signs.
   3/1 means MenCircle if no mensuration sign is given
   2/1 means MenCutC if no mensuration sign is given
  • Notate mensuration signs as an expression in Finale, using a CamelCase tag from the list below. The expression must be attached to the first note/rest after the mensuration sign.
  • If the same mensuration sign occurs simultaneously in all voices, then it is sufficient to add a text expression to just one of the voices. If multiple mensuration signs occur simultaneously but are different, and they have the same time signatures (such as MenC and MenCutC occurring at the same time for some reason...), mark each one with a text expression. If two mensuration signs occur simultaneously, it is sufficient to mark just one voice of each kind.
  • Do not hide the time signature (Otherwise, it will not be exported in MusicXML data).
  • Rhythms are not reduced (see table below for Modern time signatures being used).
  • Notate passages preceded by a "3" sign by changing the time signature to 3/1 and adding the text expression Men3. If a voice moves to "3" at a different time than the others, double-click its staff with the Staff Tool (the treble clef); in the Staff Attributes window that pops up, check "Time Signature" under Independent Elements. Be sure to show the new time signature by double-clicking on the relevant bar with the Measure Tool and select "Show if needed" under Time Signature.
  • Notate triplets as triplets. Finale sometimes hiccups on whole-note triplets that contain "complex" rhythms such as dotted semibreves or breves: one way to do this is to enter them manually using Simple Entry: (1) un-check "Check for Extra Notes" in the Simple Entry Options window; (2) select the whole note and the triplets in the Simple Entry Palette; (3) enter your notes. If the triplet consists of a breve and a semibreve, you may have to first enter two whole notes, delete the remaining whole note rest, then go back to the first whole note and hit alt-8.
  • For augmentation or diminution via, for instance, a verbal canon (e.g. "In duplo," "Decrescit"), mensuration canon (e.g. Cut-C against C), or proportion sign (e.g. "3" or "2"), enter the notes with their sounding durations. Use text expressions to indicate the canon or sign as usual. Then indicate that the notes should be displayed with a different value than their sounding duration by adding the additional text expression "rscale:[factor of augmentation/diminution]". Indicate the first note whose display duration should not differ from its sounding duration by adding the text expression "rscale:1". For example, in Missa Gaudeamus, Agnus Dei III m. 110, the altus has a "2" sign. Transcribe this in Finale as follows:
Encoding of "2" sign in Finale.

This will appear in the JRP database as:

Display of "2" sign in JRP database.

Here is a list of the CamelCase mensuration sign codes:

CamelCase Meter Meaning
MenCircle 3/1 Perfect tempus, minor prolation
MenCircleDot 9/2 Perfect tempus, major prolation
MenC 2/1 Imperfect tempus, minor prolation (in older mensural systems MenC can instead mean imperfect tempus, major prolation)
MenCDot 6/2 Imperfect tempus, major prolation
Cut versions of above (add "Cut" just after "Men")
MenCutCircle 3/1 MenCircle in 2:1 ratio
MenCutCircleDot 9/2 MenCircleDot in 2:1 ratio
MenCutC 2/1 MenC in 2:1 ratio
MenCutCDot 6/2 MenCDot in 2:1 ratio
Mensural signs where beat is on breve rather than semi-breve
MenCircle2 3/0 perfect minor modus, imperfect tempus
MenCircle3 9/2 usually functions similar to MenCircleDot
MenC2 2/0 imperfect minor modus, imperfect tempus
MenC3 6/1 imperfect minor modus, perfect tempus
Cut versions of above
MenCutCircle2 3/0 MenCircle2 in 2:1 ratio
MenCutCircle3 9/1 MenCircle3 in 2:1 ratio
MenCutC2 2/0 MenC2 in 2:1 ratio
MenCutC3 6/1 MenC3 in 2:1 ratio
Other mensural signs
MenReverseC 2/0 4:3 proportion
Men3 3/1 3:2 proportion
Men3Over2 3/1 3:2 proportion, alternate style
Men2 2/0 2:1 proportion
MenCircleOver3 3/1
MenCutCircle3Over2 3/1 MenCutCircle symbol followed by 3/2
MenOWithinO 4:3 ratio (speed up 33%).
Alternate signs (not used in Josquin)
MenCircleTwoDot 3/1 same as MenCircle
MenCircleThreeDot 9/2 same as MenCircleDot
MenCTwoDot 2/1 same as MenC
MenCThreeDot 6/2 same as MenCDot
Italian trecento signs (not used in Josquin)
MenDivD .d.    divisio duodenaria (12 minims per breve)
MenDivN 9/2 .n.    divisio novenaria (perfect tempus, major prolation)
MenDivO .o.    divisio octonaria
MenDivP 3/1 .p.    divisio senaria perfecta (italica) (perfect tempus, minor prolation)
MenDivY 3/1 .y.    divisio senaria perfecta (italica) (perfect tempus, minor prolation)
MenDivSP 3/1 .s.p.  divisio senaria perfecta (italica) (perfect tempus, minor prolation)
MenDivSI 6/2 .s.i.  divisio senaria imperfecta (imperfect tempus, major prolation)
MenDivSG 6/2 .s.g.  divisio senaria imperfecta (gallica) (imperfect tempus, major prolation)
MenDivG 6/2 .g.    divisio senaria imperfecta (gallica) (imperfect tempus, major prolation)
MenDivI 6/2 .i.    divisio senaria imperfecta (gallica) (imperfect tempus, major prolation)
MenDivQ 2/1 .q.    divisio quaternaria (imperfect tempus, minor prolation)

To create and insert an expression:

  1. Click on the "mf" icon (Expression Icon) in the toolbar.
  2. Double click on the note/rest onto which the expression will be placed.
  3. Scroll to the bottom of the expression list and click on a text expression, such as dolce or agitato.
  4. Click on the button "Create Expressive Text..."
  5. In the Main tab, Text: field, type one of the CamelCase mensuration signs listed above.
  6. Click "OK" and then "Select" to insert the new expression (after an expression is created, you just need to select it and do not need to create another expression with the same text).
  7. Can be placed above the staff, if desired.

The resulting expression will be mapped to a <direction> in the MusicXML export, also showing the note to which it was attached (which occurs immediately after it), and the modern time signature found in the attributes section before the <direction> element:


     <sound tempo="120"/>
     <direction placement="below">
         <words default-y="-84" font-style="italic">MenCircle</words>
     <note default-x="104">
       <accidental parentheses="yes">sharp</accidental>
       <stem default-y="-50.5">down</stem>

Here is what the MusicXML looks like when an expression is attached to a rest:

     <direction placement="below">
         <words default-y="-83" font-style="italic">MenC</words>
     <note default-x="246">

5 Barlines

To indicate that a voice should have barlines less frequently than in the Finale transcription, use the text expression "barlines:[frequency with which barlines should appear]". For instance, if barlines should only appear once every three bars, attach the text expression


to the first note/rest beginning of that section.

If the barlines style equals the number in the transcription, use the text expression


on the first note/rest in the measure which the new style applies. Barline styles are automatically canceled by double barlines.

5.1 Dashing

Some mensurations contain a barline hierarchy. In the following example MenCircle2 has a solid line every third barline, and two dashed barlines between. To indicate this style, add the text expression

   barlines:3, dash

This indicates that the solid barline occurs every three barlines, and the intervening barlines are dashed. In the following example each voice should have this text expression given on the first note/rest in the music:

   barlines:3 dash
Barlines style genered by the text expression "barlines:3, dash".

MenC2 posses a predefined dashing style. For MenC2, place music into 2/1 time signature, and every other bar will be dashed to indicate the long-duration groupings of the measures.

6 Editorial accidentals

  • Notate editorial accidentals as an accidental on the staff, but with parentheses, such as (). This can be done in Speedy Note Entry (or Simple Note Entry) by typing p while the cursor is on the note (or the note is highlighted).
  • Musica ficta markings do not need to be indicated on middle or ending notes of tied note groups.

Here is an example MusicXML note exported from Finale 2009 with a parenthesized accidental, with the attribute parentheses="yes" indicating the parentheses around the accidental:

<note default-x="106">
  <accidental parentheses="yes">sharp</accidental>
  <stem default-y="-50.5">down</stem>

7 Medial cadences

  • Place double bars (not final bars) after medial cadences (any cadence followed by a double bar or fermata that is not a final cadence).

8 Terminal notes

Terminal notes are defined as the last note in a voice before either a double barline or at the end of a work. Terminal notes will be displayed a longs regardless of their actual durations. If you want a terminal note to be displayed with a different notehead shape (such as a breve, or as the notehead shape of the actual notated duration), add an expression text marker to indicate what notehead shape should be used instead of a long. Here is a list of the text expressions which can be used to display different noteheads. Each text expression should start with the string "shape:" (meaning notehead shape) which is used to indicate that the text refers to the notehead shape:

  • shape:maxima
  • shape:long
  • shape:breve (double whole note)
  • shape:semibreve (whole note)
  • shape:minim (half note)
  • shape:semiminim (quarter note)
  • shape:fusa (eighth note)

Note that the above names for the noteheads should be used (minim rather than minima, or "half note"; long rather than longa).

To create a text expression, do this (Finale 2009, but should be similar or identical in other versions):

  1. click on the Expression Tool
  2. double click on the note to add expression
  3. click on miscellaneous category in expression window which appears
  4. choose the desired expression, if it exists. Otherwise, create the expression the first time it is needed:
    1. click on "Create misc expression..."
    2. set text to "shape:minim" (no spaces or quotes), for example to set the display style of the note as a minim.
    3. click ok to create new expression
    4. click select to chose expression
  5. position expression vertically as you see fit, probably best underneath the note.

Here is an example screen-shot of Finale showing how


The final display of the notation will look like this:


Below is the MusicXML data which is generated for the note in the above example which should be displayed as a minim rather than a long. Note that the text is placed in a <direction> element immediately before the note to which it is attached:

<direction placement="below">
    <words default-y="-87" relative-x="4">shape:minim</words>
<note default-x="265">
  <stem default-y="-50.5">down</stem>

In the case where the terminal note is shorter than a full measure, such as a minim (half-note) at the start of a 2/1 measure, then the note should fill the measure (a breve in this example), and the text expression "shape:minim" attached to the note.

8.1 Old-style terminal note encoding

An older style, which is now obsolete (don't encode with this method, but be aware of it if you come across it in older data which has not been updated), used accent marks to control the style of the terminal notes:

  1. > (accent) means that the original rhythmic level of the note is a long.
  2. ^ (marcato, or martellato) means that the original rhythmic level of the note is a breve.

In the MusicXML export here is what an explicit long looks like (as an accent mark on the note):

   <note default-x="82">
         <accent default-y="-55" placement="below"/>

And an explicit breve mark (as a marcato [or martellato] mark) in MusicXML (called a strong-accent):

     <note default-x="184">
           <strong-accent placement="above" type="up"/>

9 Sections and inactive voices

  • Indicate inactive voices with rests. (Optional: hide the staff in Finale--this is dangerous in VC's experience...)
  • Indicate voice changes and other new sections within a piece with (1) a double bar at the end of the old section, (2) a new time signature at the beginning of the new section, even if it hasn't changed, and (3) a text expression attached to the first note/rest in the section, e.g. "Section: Qui venit". This text expression should include the first two or three words of the new section (or, in Kyrie or Agnus Dei settings, indicate the section via roman numerals, e.g. "Section: Kyrie II" or "Section: Agnus II"). In motets with prima, secunda, tertia pars, the text expression should say, for example, "Section: Secunda pars: Qui fuit Heli". If the section name is not clear, label it "Section:".

10 Text-expression summary

Text expression Description
string To display text in the score, insert a text expression in the appropriate position that consists only of the text to be displayed. Example: "Canon at the upper fifth". If text should be displayed in all voices when separate parts are extracted, use "all:text here."
Menmensuration Whenever the mensuration in one or more voices is NOT MenCutC (2/1) or MenCircle (3/1), use this text expression, as follows:
  1. for a single voice (e.g., MenCutC3)
  2. for all voices, add "all," as in: "all:Men3". This text expression can be placed in any voice.
section: string All sections of a work should begin with a "section:" marker that gives the title of the subsection (e.g., section: Kyrie I; section: Qui tollis; section: Solomon autem genuit).
barlines: string Use for barlines that need adjustment, as in:
  • barlines: 2 (hides every other barline)
  • barlines: 3 (hides two out of three barlines, in a repeating pattern)
  • barlines: 2, dashed (creates a cyclical display of one dashed barline followed by a solid barline; useful for MenC2)
  • barlines: 3, dashed (creates a cyclical display of two dashed barlines followed by a solid barline; useful for MenCircle2)
  • To apply these instructions to all voices, use "allbarlines:", or "all:barlines:".
  • Barline styles will only effect the current section. If a new section is started (with a double barline), then a barline text expression must be repeated at the start of the new section if the styling continues into the new section.
rscale: # Use to change all rhythmic values in a given voice, as in:

rscale:1/2 (changes all note values in a given voice to half of their appearance in Finale: whole notes become half notes, half notes quarter notes, and so on)

  • rscale:2 (doubles all note values in a given voice)
  • If necessary, "all:rscale:#" can also be used at the start of a work to indicate a global rhythmic scaling for the entire work. The "all" form of rscale cannot be used internally in the work.
shape: Use to change the appearance of an individual notehead contrary to its score alignment duration. By default the last note of every section will be converted to a long, so if a voice ends a section with, say, a breve, insert the instruction: "shape:breve". Also use this instruction for:
  • canons: we usually want the last note value of the "follower" voice to appear as it does in the leader voice. Ex.: shape:dotted semibreve
  • internal longs-plus-fermatas: from time to time voices come to a dead stop on a long-plus-fermata in the middle of a section. Transcribe this as a breve, but add the instruction: "shape:long"
incipit: By default an incipit (short selection of music from the start of the piece) extracted from a work will be four measures long. If the incipit should be longer or shorter, add an instruction like this one for 6 measure: "incipit: 6". Incipit instructions may be given at the start of any section of a work to indicate the length if the incipit for that section.
scorecomment: string Use to insert a comment that applies to all voices but that should not be displayed in the JRP score. (Abbreviation: scom:)
partcomment:  string As above, but for a comment that applies to a single voice. (Abbreviation: pcom:)

11 Humdrum translations

Encoding standards for Humdrum files translated from the MusicXML output from Finale.

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